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Linux Operating System

Linux is a Unix like computer operating system, it is a free and open source for development & distribution. Linux Kernel is the defining component, and it was first released in 05 October 1991 by Linus Torvalds.

Linux Kernel
The Linux Kernel is a Unix like Kernel, It is widely used Kernel world wide. It handles everything in the operating system- to allocate space to the processes, to manage files, to allocate memory to the files, to manage the processes, to run/stop the processes. We can say Kernel is the hub of Operating System.


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linux file hierarchy

A linux system contains the following file hierarchy

Main directorySub Dir1Sub dir2Sub dir3Description
/Known as root, It contains the Linux main directories.
/binIt contains all essential executables files of the linux system, that can used by the all linux system users(such as: ls,mount,chmod.. etc)
/bootIt contains linux booting related files, that allows to linux start up.
/devIt contains files realted to attached peripherals (such as: keyboard, camera etc)
/etcIt contains the administrator related commands and files (such as : passwd, .config files, group, inittab).
/etc/X11It contains the specific files for the configuration of X.
/etc/optIt contains the configuration files for the applications installed in /opt
/homeIt is the personal user directory, where user can create their directories
/libIt contains the shared libraries that are necessary for the system during booting process.
/mntIt contains the mount points of external devices.
/optIt contains packages of supplementary applications.
/rootIt contains the directories that are related to the root administrator.
/sbinIt contains the system binary files.
/tmpIt contains temporary files & directories.
/usrSecondary hierarchy
/usr/X11R6It is is reserved for the system X version 11 release 6.
/usr/X386Reserved for the X386 system files.
/usr/binIt contains the binaries of the commands.
/usr/includeIt conatins the C and C++ header files, that can further use in programming.
/usr/libIt conatins the library files.
/usr/localIt contains the local installed programs by the root.
/usr/local/binIt contains the binaries of local programs.
/usr/local/gamesIt contains the binaries of local games.
/usr/local/includeIt conatins the local C and C++ header files, that can further use in programming.
/usr/local/libIt contains the local shared libraries
/usr/local/sbinIt contains the local system binary files.
/usr/local/shareIt is an independent hierarchy
/usr/local/srcIt contains the local source code files.
/usr/sbinIt contains the binary files that are reserved for the system administrator.
/usr/shareIt contains the files that are reserved for architecture's non-dependent data.
/usr/srcIt contains the source code files.
/varIt contains the variable data
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