Chapter 3 - Services available on the internet

Class X (Chapter 3): Services available on the internet – In this tutorial, we are going to learn about the services available on the internet in details.
Submitted by IncludeHelp, on October 28, 2020

Internet provides various services to its users. Information uploading to internet as well as information downloading is one of the majorly used internet service now a days. Internet is a rich source of information. A large variety of information is available on internet. We can access or retrieve information as per our need. Let’s discuss this concept in detail.

3.1 What is information retrieval?

Information Retrieval (IR) may be defined as a software program that deals specifically with the organization, storage, retrieval and evaluation of information from storage of documents. The program helps users locate the information they need but it doesn't return the answers to the queries directly. It informs of the existence and location of documents which could consist of the information required. Documents which satisfy the requirement of the user are called relevant documents. Only relevant information is retrieved via a complete IR program.

An information retrieval system is called a print or computer-based system used to search for and locate information in a file, database, or other set of information.

3.1.1 Aim and objectives of information retrieval

The main aim of information retrieval is to establish a model for extracting information from the information storage.

Information retrieval refers to the search, retrieval process, methods, and procedures of stored data and information from a file or database. Modern information retrieval is done in libraries and archives by searching for full-text databases, locating items from bibliographic databases, and delivering documents via a network.

Information retrieval is on database which is available on server or user’s computer database. Two primary methods are matching terms in the query against the database index (keyword search) and using hypertext or hypermedia links to traverse the database. Since the early 1960s, keyword searching has been the dominant approach to text retrieval; hypertext has so far been primarily limited to personal or corporate information-retrieval applications. Evolving methods for information-recovery, exemplified by advances of modern Internet search engines, combine natural language, hyperlinks, and keyword search. Researchers involved with artificial intelligence are studying other techniques that seek higher levels of retrieval accuracy.

Information Retrieval (IR) can be described as a software program that deals with organizing, storing, retrieving, and evaluating information from storage of information, particularly textual information. Information Retrieval is the practice of extracting content that can normally be information in an unstructured manner, i.e. text that usually satisfies a need for information from large collections stored on computers. Information Retrieval, for example, may be when a user enters an application into the program.

3.1.2 Information retrieval framework

An IR framework is capable of reflecting, processing, organizing and accessing information. A collection of search keywords is needed. Keywords in search engines are what users look for. These keywords sum up knowledge overview.

Information retrieval and information recovery is related to database. Two primary methods are matching terms in the query against the database index (keyword search) and using hypertext or hypermedia links to traverse the database. Since the early 1960s, keyword searching has been the dominant approach to text retrieval; hypertext has so far been primarily limited to personal or corporate information-retrieval applications. Evolving methods for information-recovery, exemplified by advances of modern Internet search engines, combine natural language, hyperlinks, and keyword search. Researchers involved in artificial intelligence are studying other techniques which seek higher rates of retrieval precision.

3.2 Locating sites using search engines and finding people on the net

A web-based tool that helps users to find information on the World Wide Web is a search engine. Google and Yahoo! are common examples of search engines. , and check for MSN. Search engines use automated software applications, following links from page to page, site to site, that travel along the Web. To create a searchable database of the site, the information collected by the spiders is used.

Websites are hosted on servers, requiring visits to a web browser such as Chrome, Firefox, or Internet Explorer (whether on a computer or mobile device).

We can access a website directly by entering its URL address or searching for it on a search engine such as Google or Bing.

Websites were initially classified according to their top-level domains. Such examples include:

  • Web sites of government agencies = .gov
  • Web sites of educational institutions = .edu
  • Websites of non-profit organizations = .org
  • Trade websites = .com
  • Sources of knowledge = .info

While there are still extensions of those top-level domains, they say nothing about the actual content of a website. The ".com" extension is by far the most common domain in modern day internet, along with many other country-specific extensions (.it,.de,.co.uk,.fr, etc.).

3.2.1 How do search engines Locate sites using search engines?

All this information is parsed by search engines by looking at various different ranking criteria depending on the question of a user. This includes relevance to the query typed in by a user, content quality, pace of the web, metadata, and more. To help search engines measure the overall quality of any page, each data point is combined. Then the website is ranked and shown to the user based on their calculations.

In order to produce search results, a search engine uses various complex mathematical formulas. The results are then shown on the SERP (Search Engine Results Pages) for a particular query. Search engine algorithms take a web page's key elements, including the title of the page, content and density of keywords, and come up with a ranking for where the results are put on the pages.

The algorithm of each search engine is identical, so a top ranking on Yahoo! doesn't guarantee an influential Google ranking, and vice versa. The algorithms used by search engines are not only tightly held secrets to make matters more complex, they are also continuously undergoing adjustment and revision. This suggests that it is important to surmise the parameters for optimizing a site best by observation, as well as trial and error, and not only once, but constantly.

3.3 What Websites Are?

A website or website is a central location of web pages which are connected and accessed by using a browser to visit the website's home page. For example, the website address URL for Includehelp (Uniform Resource Locator) is https:/www.includehelp.com. You could access any of the web pages found on our website from our homepage.

A website's main page is called a home page. Typically this is the first page you see when you call up a website and can be named 'start page' or 'index page' as well. From here the user delves into the subpages of the web.

A website is a collection of interlinked, publicly accessible Web pages that share a single domain name. An individual, group, business, or organization can create and maintain websites to serve a variety of purposes.

Tim Berners-Lee, a British scientist at CERN, created the first Website in 1990. Three years later, in 1993, CERN declared that the World Wide Web could be freely accessed and used by anyone.






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