Chapter 4 - Web Services

Class X (Chapter 4): Web Services – In this tutorial, we are going to learn about the Web Services, what is chat, chat room, email, video conferencing, etc.
Submitted by IncludeHelp, on October 31, 2020

Web services are services that facilitate users in many aspects. Some of the key web services are Chat, Email, Video Conferencing, E-Learning, E-Banking, E-Shopping, E- Reservation, E-Governance, E- Groups, and Social Networking.

This chapter mainly describes the above-mentioned web services.

4.1 What is Chat?

Chat is a text-based communication that is a live, or real-time that is done between two or more people. For example, any typed text is received immediately by other participants when speaking to someone in chat. There are two main participants active during the chatting process. First who sends message is known as sender and other one who receives message is known as receiver. Below image is clearly depicting about chatting process between people.

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When chat to someone in chat any typed text is received by other participants immediately. Chat refers to how messages are communicated, interacted and/or exchanged over the Internet. It involves two or more individuals who interact via a program or service activated to chat.

In other words chat is known as chatting, online chat, or web chat. The chat can be delivered via Internet communication via text, verbal, audio, visual or audio-visual (A / V). If conducted through a laptop, chat involves software supporting Internet Relay Chat (IRC) or an instant messenger program, where a central server manages chat contact between various end user users.

Online chat services are also available which require users to sign up with a valid email address. A user may join a group chat room after signing up, or send a private message to another person. Online chat services have purpose-built chat interfaces which manage the entire process of communication.

Chatting on the Internet is chat to other people who use the Internet at the same time that you are. Generally this "speak" is the sharing of typed-in messages using one site as a repository for messages (or "chat room") and a community of users who interact on the Internet from anywhere. In some cases a private chat may be arranged between two parties that meet in a group chat initially. Chats can be permanent or scheduled for a specific time and duration. Most chats are focused on a specific topic of interest, and some involve guest experts or well-known people who "talk" to anybody who joins. (Chat transcripts may be archived for reference later)

Online services (especially America Online), bulletin board services, and websites are used for chatting. Several websites, notably chat platform, exist for chat-making purposes only. Some chat sites, including Worlds Chat, allow users to take on an avatar's position or appearance in a simulated or virtual reality world. A chat can also be performed using audio or video or audio/ video, provided that you have the access to the bandwidth and the correct programming.

4.1.1 Chat room

A chat room is a virtual place on internet where multiple people can all speak simultaneously. When all individuals involved in the chat room see something said in a chat room. A PM (private message) or DM (direct message) can be sent for sending a message to only one person in a chat room.

How to do Chatting?

Here is a sequence of steps of the chat protocol to observe when chatting online with others.

  1. Behave the same way you would in real-life interaction with others.
  2. Stop chat slang.
  3. Do our best to correctly spell all words, and use proper punctuation.
  4. Remember no one is perfect, chatting is normal to spelling errors and other mistakes.
  5. WRITE NOT IN ALL CAPS, as it makes you appear as you yell.
  6. Do not send private messages to other Chat users without first asking them.
  7. Abide by the rules established by the chat-runners.
  8. See the talk for a few minutes before chiming into someone else's talk, when you first enter a discussion with several people.

4.2 Email

4.2.1 What is Email?

E-mail stand for electronic mail, e-mail or email is a best way of communication service between two or more people. To send or receive email, the user must have a valid email ID For example- [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] etc and an e-mail program, also known as an e-mail user, such as Microsoft Outlook, Gmail, Yahoo or Mozilla.

We need to specify our email address, password, and the mail servers used to send and receive messages when we setup an email account. Fortunately, most webmail providers automatically setup accounts, so we only have to enter our email address and password. However, we can need to manually customize each account if we use an email client such as Microsoft Outlook or Apple Mail. We will also have to access the incoming and outgoing mail servers in addition to the email address and password.

We click on an email message to send an email to someone; it is necessary to use good netiquette. You should often have a subject that summarises the topic of the email, for example. Beginning of message with the name of the recipient and ending the message with our name or "signature" is also useful. Our name, email address, and/or website URL provide a traditional signature. A professional signature can include the name and title of our business as well.

We should easily add each email address to the 'To' field if we wish to send an email to multiple recipients. If the email is specifically intended for one person, however, you can put the additional addresses in the field 'CC' (carbon copy). If you are sending an email to several entities who do not know each other, the "Bcc" (blind carbon copy) field is better used. This masks each recipient's email addresses, which helps avoid spam.

Below mentioned image is depicting about email box.

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A server computer which stores and delivers our messages is used when using an e-mail user. The ISP (Internet Service Protocol) usually hosts this server but may be another Internet service. To access new e-mails, an e-mail user has to connect to a computer, while e-mails saved online are still accessible to any user connected to the Internet.

4.2.2 Steps to send or receive an email

Write an email

  1. On computer, go to Gmail.
  2. In the top left corner, click on compose button.
  3. In the "To" field, add recipients email address. We can also add multiple recipients: In the "Cc" and "Bcc" fields.
  4. Add a subject line in Subject text box.
  5. Write our message.
  6. We can attach documents by clicking on attachment sign given at the bottom of the page, if required
  7. At the bottom of the page, click Send.

Read and Reply an email

  1. On computer, go to Gmail.
  2. In the top left corner, click on inbox button.
  3. Click on email which we want to read
  4. Click on "reply" button to reply an individual given at the bottom of the active mail
  5. Click on "reply all" to reply all participants mentioned in the active mail

4.3 Video- Conferencing

Video conferencing is a visual communication between two or more users regardless of their location, providing real-time transmission of audio and video content. Business or companies need to set up a profiling meeting program and hardware solutions for rooms, PCs, mobile devices and browsers for successful video conferencing. Video conferencing consists of the endpoint (from a simple PC to a telepresence system), video conferencing server (to run group video conferencing), peripherals (webcam, microphone, speaker, headset, etc.) and software infrastructure (video processing, content transmission, integration). Video conferencing is a new, high-tech networking tool designed to improve business productivity, simplify and automate decision-making processes, and reduce travel costs for consumers and employees at the organization.

Video conferencing is a tool that enables users to conduct face-to - face meetings in various locations without having to travel together to a single venue. This technology is particularly convenient for business users in different cities or even countries, as it saves time, expenses and business travel related hassles. Video conference uses include holding routine meetings, negotiating business dealings and interviewing job applicants.

The main advantage of video conferencing over teleconferencing is that users can see each other, so they can develop stronger relationships. When an informal video conference is held it is called a video call or video chat.

There are a variety of ways to hold video conferencing. Individuals may use web cameras which are linked to our laptop, tablet or desktop computers. Cameras-equipped smartphones may also be used for video conferencing connections. A software-based platform is typically used in such instances to transmit communication over Internet protocols.

Some companies use dedicated video conference rooms equipped with high-grade cameras and screens to ensure that the conversation is clear and with limited technical deficiencies. The hardware needed to run the video conference is often installed and assembled by third party providers.

4.3.1 Videoconference stability and quality

Videoconference stability and quality can depend on data transmission speed and reliability. Videoconferencing (or videoconferencing) means conducting a conference at different sites between two or more participants, using computer networks to transmit audio and video data. A point-to - point (two-person) video conferencing system, for example, operates very much like a video phone. Each participant is mounted on his or her computer with a video camera, microphone and speakers. As the two participants speak to each other, their voices are transmitted over the network and distributed to speakers of the other, and whatever images appear before the video camera appear in a window on the display of the other participant.

Multipoint videoconferencing allows three or more people to sit in a virtual conference room and to speak as if they were seated next to one another. The hardware costs made videoconferencing prohibitively expensive for most organizations until the mid 90s, but that situation is rapidly changing. Many analysts believe that videoconferencing will be one of the computer industry's fastest-growing segments in the latter half of the decade.

The new workforce is made up of geographically scattered colleagues and teams trying to maximize their everyday interactions. This is critical in a corporate world that is dependent on collaboration and teamwork to make the next big whatever a reality. For some organizations, that means adopting solutions such as video conferencing for collaboration. Video conferencing is a type of web calling technology, a collaborative solution that allows users to place calls via an internet browser, a phone, a smartphone or a video. During a video conference users can transmit live video to provide much-needed visual experiences with colleagues, helping users at all levels of an organization and across all departments.

4.3.2 Video Conferencing Advantages

1) Activate Digital Workforce

In addition to creating a more inclusive meeting culture within the company, video conferencing software is a cornerstone for supporting today's digital workforce. Video meetings help teams maintain human connections regardless of physical location, accelerating decision making and enhancing our ability to collaborate globally. Learn more about how digital work force is enabled by video conferencing.

2) Simplify usability and management

Teams need access to collaboration solutions that allow them to meet through audio conferencing, video conferencing, screen sharing, and instant messaging in real time. Yet depending on too many desperate ideas can get things overcomplicated. By implementing a centralized, centrally controlled online meeting solution with a simple UI, teams can concentrate on their meetings rather than being burdened with troubleshooting each meeting. Read more about how video conferencing makes it easy to communicate.

3) Connection and history on rally

In today's workforce, versatility, flexibility and modern means of communication are prioritized over private offices and seclusion. Bringing remote workers face to face with in-office staff can boost productivity on both ends and at the same time reduce travel costs? Comparing travel costs and video conference costs reveals video conferencing is a huge winner. If the organization consists of remote workers, is internationally distributed, or just stresses a balanced work / life balance, video conferencing has the unique potential to incorporate the personal touch of face-to - face contact into any interaction. Learn more about how collaboration enhances a video-first society.

4) Increase Reliability in Communication

Video conferencing offers a quick and secure way of communicating with our teams. While video continues to develop into a business-critical feature, priority must be given to reliability of enterprise-class service and reliability support in our solution. Learn more on how video conferencing increases the speed of communication.

5) Enhance Price and Redundancy

Companies update their existing audio or web conference services and see more interest in comprehensive video conferencing solutions that include audio conferencing, screen sharing, messaging, recording meetings, and live streaming events. The total cost of ownership (TCO) for multiple vendors just adds unnecessary costs and complexity for the solution's end-users. Learn more about how video conferencing enhances value and reduces redundancy at conferencing.

4.4 E-Learning

A learning which is based on electronic resources is known as e-learning. The key component of E-learning is the use of computers and the Internet. E-learning can also be termed a network enabling learning which transfers of skills and knowledge at the same time or at user's convenient time to the large number of recipients of delivery of education.

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With the rapid development of technology, e-learning systems developed and modernized as time goes. The introduction of computerized learning was the basis of this revolution and as we are more closely to Smartphone's, tablets, etc., these devices now have an important tool for e-learning system. Gradually, books are being replaced by electronic study materials. Knowledge can also be shared through the Internet, which can be accessed 24/7 anywhere, anytime.

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E-learning has proven to be the best means in the corporate sector as well, particularly when training programs are conducted by MNCs for professionals worldwide and employees are able to acquire important skills while sitting in a boardroom or holding seminars that are conducted under one roof for employees of the same or different organizations. The schools that use e-learning technologies are a step ahead of those that still have traditional learning technologies.

4.4.1 Approach to thinking

Advancing the concept of non-electronic teaching with the help of books and lectures is no doubt equally important, but the importance and effectiveness of technology-based learning cannot be taken lightly or completely ignored. The human brain is believed to be able to quickly recall and respond to what is seen and heard by moving images or videos. It has also been found that stimuli are also held by the brain for longer periods, while retaining the student's attention. Different industries, including agriculture , medicine, education , infrastructure, industry, and government settings, are adjusting to the idea of e-learning that allows a nation to advance.

E-learning, also known as online learning or electronic learning is knowledge acquisition that takes place through electronic technologies and media. In plain language e-learning is defined as "electronically enabled learning." E-learning is usually performed over the Internet, where students can access their learning materials online at any time and location. E-learning takes place most often in the form of online classes, online degrees or online programmes.

4.4.2 E-Learning advantage and disadvantages

E-Learning advantages

  1. We can connect the different resources in various different formats.
  2. It is a very effective way online courses are delivered.
  3. The resources are available from anywhere and at any time thanks to its convenience and flexibility.
  4. Anyone who is a part-time student or who works full-time can benefit from web-based learning.
  5. Web-based learning facilitates active and automated learning.
  6. We can train ourself at any time and from anywhere because you have access to the 24x7 net.
  7. It is a very convenient and flexible option; you don't have to rely on anyone for anything, above all.
  8. We can not only train ourself on a daily basis, but also on weekends or whenever you've got the free time to. There is no law which is hard and quick.
  9. We will connect with others online via discussion boards and chats, and also clarify our concerns if any.
  10. The video instructions given for audio and video learning can be repeatedly rebounded and watched and heard if you don't get to first understand the subject.

E-learning disadvantages

There are not many drawbacks to eLearning, the main one is that we only get experience on a theoretical basis so it might be a little different when it comes to putting to use everything we've learned. There's a lack of face-to - face learning experience, which may matter to some of us.

  1. Most of the evaluations online are restricted to questions of an objective nature only.
  2. There is also the issue of the degree to which online learning programs provide protection.
  3. Even the credibility of the work of a specific student is an problem because online just about everyone can do a project other than the actual student itself.
  4. Assessments that are usually labelled by computers tend to be based purely on information and not necessarily on practicality.

4.5 E-Banking

Internet Banking, also known as net-banking or online banking is an electronic payment system that allows a bank or financial institution's customer to make online financial or non-financial transactions over the Internet. This service offers electronic access to almost every banking facility, which is typically limited to consumers via a local branch including fund transfers, deposits and electronic bill payments.

Any individual who has registered for online banking at the bank, with an active bank account or with any financial institution can access Internet banking. After registering for online banking facilities a customer does not need to visit the bank whenever he / she wants a banking service to be used. Not only is it convenient but it's also a secure banking method. Net banking portals are protected by unique passwords and User / Customer IDs.

Electronic banking has many names, such as e banking, virtual banking , online banking, or web banking. It's simply using the network of electronics and telecommunications to deliver various banking products and services. A customer can access his account via e-banking and perform many transactions using his or her computer or mobile phone. We will look into the value and types of e-banking services in this article.

Electronic banking is a type of banking where funds are exchanged by exchanging electronic signals rather than by exchanging cash , checks, or other paper documents. Transfers of funds are taking place between financial institutions including banks and credit unions. They also occur between financial institutions, such as supermarkets, and commercial institutions. The funds are transferred via electronic banking if someone withdraws cash from an automated teller machine (ATM) or pays for groceries using a debit card (which draws the amount owed to the store from a savings or checking account.

Electronic banking depends on complex computer systems that use telephone lines to communicate. Such computer systems document transactions and fund ownership, and monitor the methods that consumers and business organizations use to access funds. Access code, such as a personal identification number (PIN) that could be used to withdraw cash from an ATM machine, is a common form of access (or identification)

Different electronic banking systems exist, and they range in size. A small system example is an ATM network, a series of interconnected automated teller machines linked to a central financial institution and its computer system. The Federal Reserve Wire Network, or Fedwire, is an example of a major electronic banking network. This system allows participants to manage massive, time-sensitive payments, such as those needed to settle transactions in real estate.

Electronic banking uses an electronic platform to help users access the funds they have. It removes the need to visit the bank's customers to do financial transactions. As more and more consumers now using the internet for a variety of their everyday activities, this digital banking platform makes banking more available to users and more convenient to them.

Types of e-banking services

There are a lot of different types of e-banking services that we can use for different bank transactions.

1) Digital Banking

Internet Banking is a form of e-banking service that enables you to make multiple financial and non-financial transactions over the Internet. For use this service you can use our PC or laptop, as well as an Internet connection.

We can transfer funds to another bank account, check our account statement, pay utility bills and do much more with the help of Internet Banking.

2) The Mobile Banking System

Most banks now have a Mobile Banking app, too. Much like the bank's online platform used for Internet Banking, you can use the app to manage several different kinds of banking transactions. You can access our bank's software and use this facility whether you're using an Android or iOS device. In addition, the apps can be used to move money, scan account statements, find the nearest ATM and other banking services.

3) ATM

One of the most common kinds of electronic banking is the ATM or Automated Teller Machine. The teller machine is also an automated computerized telecommunication system that helps you to withdraw money, deposit money, change the Personal Identification Number (PIN) Debit Card, and use other banking services. It eliminates the need to visit a bank and make those transactions via a human teller.

4) Debit Card

We can already use debit cards for a lot of our regular transactions. This card is connected to our bank account and this card allows you to use the funds directly from our account. When using our debit card for a transaction, you deduct the amount of the transaction from our bank account. We can use the card to pay, shop online and withdraw cash from the ATMs at POS outlets.

4.6 E-shopping

4.6.1 What is e-Shop?

Online shopping is defined as the method of searching for and buying products and services over the Internet with the use of a web browser. The main attraction of online shopping is that consumers can find and buy items they need (which will then be shipped to the front door) without ever leaving the house. Nearly anything can be bought today through online shopping, which amounts to billions of dollars in sales a year.

Today, most retail stores have a website that consumers can shop from online and either send them home or pick them up at a local store. This type of shopping experience is offered by WalMart, Best Buy, Sears and other retail companies.

Many companies offer goods exclusively through their website and do not have a retail outlet. Amazon, TigerDirect and NewEgg, for example, perform their business entirely online.

The act of buying goods or services over the Internet, through the years, online shopping has become increasingly popular, mostly because people find it convenient and easy to bargain shop from the comfort of their home or workplace. One of the most enticing factors about online shopping, especially during a holiday season, is that it alleviates the need to wait in long lines or search for a particular item from store to store.

Shopping online is the practice or action of buying goods or services over the Internet. It means going online, landing on the website of a seller, choosing something and arranging for delivery of it. The customer pays either with a credit or debit card or upon delivery for the product or service online.

The word involves not only purchasing things online but also looking for it online. In other words, I may have been engaged in shopping online but have not bought anything.

For some twenty-five years online shopping has been around. It has grown significantly in popularity.

We can buy just about anything online today. In reality, retail analysts predict that in monetary terms online shopping would soon outstrip conventional shopping.

E-Commerce is part of online shopping, which stands for Digital Commerce.

Internet Shopping occurs when a consumer shops through a digital platform. One example of such a platform is Thailand 's online biker ring store, You should not stay in this country to get one of the items that this store offers. Global coverage is one of the main advantages of shopping online.

4.6.2 Brief History of E-Shopping

Michael Aldrich had developed a system called Redifon 's Office Revolution in March 1980 before the World Wide Web was created, connecting sales companies, suppliers , and customers together. Companies were able to order supplies from suppliers, and electronically sell products to customers using videotex technology. This is considered a significant predecessor and has an impact on the online shopping growth as we know it today.

In 1994, several years after the launch of the World Wide Web, online transaction systems started to emerge including banking and shopping. The first shopping transactions were completed in 1994, launching the online shopping boom, through NetMark and the Internet Shopping Network. In 1995 and eBay launched their websites offering customers online shopping options.

Many of the first online shopping websites used Intershop Online, an online shopping software system developed by Intershop Communications AG in 1995. Intershop Online software made it easier for businesses to add online shopping or e-commerce capabilities to their website with secure transactions for their users.

4.6.3 An E-Shopping Advantage?

1) The convenience of shopping online

Customers can buy items from the comfort of their own homes or places of work. Shopping over the internet is made easier and convenient for the customer. The transactions are also easy to cancel.

The table below shows the factors which motivate online shoppers to purchase products online.

2) No Drug Shopping

In general, the sales representatives try to influence buyers to buy the product in physical stores. There can be some form of strain, while online retailers do not pressurize the customers in any way.

3) Shopping online is a time saver

Customers don't have to sit in queues in cash counters to pay for the products they've bought. We can shop from home or office, and don't have to drive for a while. Customers may also search for the products which they need by entering keywords or using search engines.

4) Customer Reviews

Companies display the full range of products they offer to attract users with varying tastes and needs. This allows consumers to choose from a range of models after comparing the finishes, features and prices of the items on display, often price comparisons are available online too.

5) Online Shop Availability

The shop is open 365 x 24 x 7. Time does not act as a barrier, wherever the buyer and the vendor are.

6) On-line monitoring

Online consumers can track the status of the order, and there is also tracking of the delivery status.

7) Shopping online will save money

E-tailers and marketers are offering discounts to the customers to attract customers to shop online. Retailers are able to sell its products via online with attractive discounts due to the elimination of maintenance, real estate costs.  Big online shopping sites sometimes offer store comparison.

4.6.4 E-Shopping disadvantages

1) Deliveries delayed

Long term and lack of proper inventory management result in shipment delays. Although it may take no more than 15 minutes to select, purchase and pay for an online product; it takes about 1-3 weeks for the product to be delivered to the customer's doorstep. This frustrates the customer, and prevents online shopping.

2) Few substantial discounts in online stores

Physical stores offer customers discounts and attract them so e-tailers have difficulty competing with offline platforms.

3) Failure to touch and feel goods in online shopping

The lack of touch-feel-try raises concerns about the quality of the product on sale. Online shopping isn't perfect for clothes as customers can't try them on.

4) Interactivity deficit of online shopping

Physical store lets buyers and sellers negotiate prices. Representatives of the showroom sales attendants give personal attention to customers and assist them in buying goods. Many online shopping mart provides a service for chat to a sales representative,

5) Lack of experience at shopping

The traditional shopping exercise offers lots of fun in the form of show-room atmosphere, smart sales staff, smell and sounds that can't be heard through a website. Indians do enjoy shopping in general. Consumers look forward to it as a chance to go out and go shopping.

6) Few closely examined in online shopping

A consumer cannot buy a product without really seeing how it looks. Customers can click and purchase a product which they don't really need. Sometimes the electronic representations of a commodity are erroneous. The colour, the appearance may not match the electronic images in real.

People like to visit physical stores and prefer to have a close look at the good, even if it takes time. When people buy items based on electronic images, the electronic images differ from the physical appearance.

7) Online-shopping fraud

Also, shopping site itself is disappearing. Besides the above, online payments aren't very safe. For e-marketers and retailers, therefore, it is essential to pay attention to this issue in order to boost e-commerce growth. The rate of cybercrime has risen and the credit card details and bank details of customers have been misused which raise privacy issues.

Customers need to be careful about sharing their personal information. Some of the e-tailers aren't dependable.

4.7 Which is e-booking?

The name speaks pretty much for itself. An online booking system lets you book online with customers. This means no more back and forth phone tags or emails to find a suitable moment. Remember the days of manually checking whether a rendezvous slot was free? You 'd let the user know if you did that, so they'd propose another time, and so on, and so forth. Any further changes again required another call, and the same process. This takes up a lot of admin time and inefficiency, even with receptionists and dedicated staff, leading to loss of customers.

At its heart, online booking systems offer consumers a way to view, book and pay electronically through the website for appointments. The whole procedure is completed online, pretty much without our involvement. Because all of this is a automated operation, this ensures that there will be no double-booking or human error in this operation.

Really forward-thinking software can even let mobile customers down. Suddenly people can book at any time of the day, from anywhere. No more customers lost because of business hours or busy landlines. Using the simple system, customers will be happier too, where they can see all the options at a glance.

Why should our company consider using the scheduling software for online appointments? Using this has tremendous benefits – saving you time and money. That's not to mention our customers' increased satisfaction which means greater profits for you.

An online booking system is a piece of software used to handle reservations. It enables businesses in travel and hospitality to accept online bookings and better manage mobile and personal reservations.

Online reservation and booking system can easily be integrated into our website or even social media page. Customers simply visit our site, pick the service they wish to book and fill out a reservation form. Then they pay through a payment gateway that transfers the payment to you. For the first time booking, the entire procedure takes just a few minutes, and even less for repeat bookings.

The system updates and reflects all changes in information and schedule in real time, so that you and our customers can see it. All information is stored safely and is secured by encryption and security protocol SSL.

There are various uses of the online booking systems. Clearly, if our business involves booking of any kind, the online booking software can benefit from this. The most common users of online booking sites are travel operators and the hospitality market. Yet they are also used in rental property, hubs for holiday celebrations, all sorts of classes and trainings, transportation facilities, and so on.

In recent days, e-reservations which simply means Electronic Reservations have become more common.

This new approach is being adopted by many restaurants, as it is convenient and cuts down on manpower.

E-Reservation is most popular in Europe and the United States. Today it is slowly entering Asia.

We can see a few restaurants in Singapore embracing the online way for users to make reservations.

These may include Morton Steakhouse and Cherry Garden, and is used for both restaurants.

This has live Internet links into the restaurants themselves.

The restaurant availability information is always up-to - date, and our bookings can be checked almost instantly.

Online booking or e-reservation refers to the mechanism that lets users reserve tickets for films, trains and airlines as well as hotels over the Internet. For example , you can easily access the website to test the availability of tickets for the various Indian Railways trains.

E-ticketing refers to using the Internet to make an appointment. You can only check the availability of seats in a bus, ferry or aircraft by using E-ticketing, you can book restaurant tables, you can book hotel rooms etc. For example-Indian railways have an official website

The term can also apply to e booking (UK Government project) computer reservation system operating through the Internet online service (such as expendia, Orbitz, and Travelocity) providing airline or cruise line travel reservation services issuing electronic paper tickets which simply means it has become more common in.

E-booking also known as electronic booking refers to making the appointments online, which means using the internet.

  • Only by using the E-booking can a person check the availability of seats in a bus, ferry or airplane. The Indian railways, for example, have the website irctc for booking train tickets.
  • One can also book restaurant tables, hotel rooms etc. The website makes my trip, for instance, allows you to book a hotel of our choice for the stay.

We identified 2 types of E-Reservations. They are as follows:

Live E-Reservations that streamline all internet reservations to the restaurant's restaurant's.

Bookings on the spot are confirmed. For instance with

Customers can obtain more information about the restaurant, such as the location, the hours of operation, the dining style and the dress code required.

Non-Live E-Reservations would be those that cannot be immediately confirmed.

Such websites would be liaising between restaurant and user.

They will take some time, and will need to inform the user again later.

The Eat2Eat will be one example. : /

4.8 E-Government

4.8.1 What is e-Government?

Countries around the world adopt electronic governance, or e-governance. E-governance has become essential in a fast-growing and demanding economy, like India.

Digitization's rapid growth has led many governments around the globe to introduce and incorporate technology into government processes. Electronic governance or e-governance may be described as the government's use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to provide and promote government services, information exchange, communication transactions, and the integration of various stand-alone systems and services. In other words, it's using technology to carry out government activities and achieve governance goals.

Via e-governance government services are made accessible in a easy, effective and transparent manner to people and businesses. Examples of e-governance include the Digital India project, India's National Portal, India's Prime Minister app, Aadhar, electronic tax filing and payment, automated land management systems, Common Entrance Test etc.

ICT is applied by e-governance. The ICT stands for the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology. The core E-Governance is also about making government services secure, available and convenient. Using e-governance is about overcoming boundaries. This is a conventional method based on paper. It's updating existing administration. And it also helps the citizen to get better services from government. Therefore, SMART government provides e-governance.

The E-Governance isn't just an internet website. E-governance offers government services which are accessible via the internet. It refers to any process or function of government that is out in digital form online.

E-governance is likewise the presence of digital government, the distribution of electronic services. It's likewise as citizen engagement online as well. An average user gets over the internet to the government center. E-governance is a network that involves organizations from government, the public and industry.

E-governance, expands on electronic governance, is the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) into all processes, with the aim of enhancing the ability of government to address the needs of the public at large. The basic purpose of e-governance is to simplify processes at the national, state , and local levels for everyone, i.e. government, citizens, businesses, etc.

In short, to promote good governance it is the use of electronic means. This connotes the incorporation of information technology in the processes and functions of government to trigger quick, rational, accountable, and transparent management. It includes access to and delivery of government services, knowledge distribution, fast and effective communication.

4.8.2 Types of E-Governance

G2 G (Government to Government): When information and services are exchanged within the government's periphery, it is referred to as G2 G interaction. This can be both horizontal, i.e. between different government entities, and vertical, i.e. between national, state , and local government entities, and within the entity at different levels.

G2C (Government to Citizen): G2C engagement is contact between government and the general public. Here an interface between government and citizens is established that allows citizens to access a wide variety of public services. Citizens have the right to express their views and concerns anytime, anywhere, on government policies.

G2B (Government to Business): The e-governance in this case helps the business class interact seamlessly with the government. It aims to eliminate red-tapism, save time , cost and establish business environment transparency while interacting with government.

G2E (Government to Employees): Any country's government is the largest employer and, as other employers do, it also treats employees on a regular basis. ICT helps to make contact between government and employees fast and effective, as well as to increase their satisfaction level by offering perquisites and add-on benefits.

E-governance can only be done if the government is able to do so. It's not a one-day task, so before switching to it the government needs to make plans and implement them. Some of the measures include investment in telecommunications infrastructure, budgetary resources, security, monitoring, speed of internet connectivity, public awareness of the importance, support from all government departments, etc.

E-governance has a great role to play, which improves and supports all the tasks performed by government departments and agencies, because on the one hand it simplifies the task and on the other it increases the quality of work.

4.9 E-Group

E-Group (also known as groups, community, and clubs) is a functionality that many social network platforms have that lets you build, share, comment, and read from their "own interest" and "niche-specific forums," often over a virtual network. "Groups" build a smaller network within a larger network and social network service users can establish, join, leave and report groupings accordingly. "Groups" are managed by "masters, administrators, or managers" who can edit posts within the community for "discussion threads" and "regulate member behaviour."

Which constitutes social networking?

Alternatively referred to as a virtual community or profile site, a social network is a website that brings people together to converse, share ideas and interests, or make new friends. That sort of communication and networking is called social media. Unlike traditional media created by no more than ten individuals, social media sites contain content created by hundreds or even millions of different individuals. Below is a small list of some of today's most used social networks.

In the 2000's, social networking services emerged as an important online phenomenon. Such programs used online community facilitation tools, where participants with common interests exchanged files , photos, videos and music, submitted and chatted messages, set up blogs (Web diaries) and discussion groups, and expressed opinions. Early social networking sites included, which linked former schoolmates, and Yahoo! 360 °, Myspace, and SixDegrees, which created networks of connections with friends of friends. By 2018 Facebook , Twitter , Instagram, LinkedIn and Snapchat were among the leading social networking services. LinkedIn has been an important platform for hiring corporate employees. Businesses began exploring how to leverage these networks, building on social networking research and theory which indicated that identifying key "influential" members of established individual networks could give the entire network access and credibility.

  • Classmates (http:/ of the main websites to communicate and stay in contact with high school peers and potential events.
  • DeviantArt (https:/ forum for sharing original works of art on social media.
  • Facebook (https:/ most popular online social networking sites. Facebook is a popular platform for users to set up personal space and communicate with friends, share photos, share films, discuss what you're doing, etc.
  • Google+ (https:/ new social networking service from Google.
  • Instagram (https:/ — An ios, Android and Windows Phone web mobile picture sharing service and application.
  • LinkedIn (https:/ of the best if not the best ways to communicate with current and former workers and even future employers.
  • Mastodon (https:/ private, federated, collaborative microblogging site of more than two million users. Any consumer of Mastodon can run a node (social subdomain) with their own theme and set of rules.
  • Mix (https:/ very popular community of Internet users who vote for web pages they like and dislike. Mix also helps users to create personal pages of popular websites that they find. See the StumbleUpon definition for more information about this social network.
  • MySpace (https:/ one of the most famous online social networks and website viewed. For more information about this service see the MySpace description.
  • Pinterest (https:/ common photo and sharing site that enables everyone to share images, create collections and more.
  • Reddit (https:/ — The registered user community (redactors) submits content submitted by the community. Reddit has a (board) subreddit for almost every group.
  • Tumblr (https:/ social networking microblogging website.
  • Twitter (https:/ great service enabling users to share 140 character long messages from their phones and on the Internet. A great way of getting the pulse of what's happening around the world.
  • Yik Yak-a virtual mobile network linking users who are close to each other.
  • YouTube (https:/ outstanding network of people who share video blogs, vlogs and other entertaining and enjoyable videos.

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