CBSE | Class IX – Chapter 2: In this tutorial, we are going to learn about the cyber-safety, what is virus, types of computer virus, malware, etc.
Submitted by IncludeHelp, on December 25, 2020

The safest and responsible use of information and communication technology is cyber security. When using the Internet to avoid personal attacks or illegal activity, this can be described as a safe practice.

The cyber safety strategy is based on:

  • Maintenance of a balanced attitude to the many advantages of technology
  • Encouraging the public to recognize ICT-related risks
  • Establishing plans for reducing and managing risks
  • Recognizing the value of effective programs for teaching and learning.

To keep Cyber-safety, we must be aware about Virus and Malware. In continuation with this let's understand about Virus/Viruses and Malware.

What is virus?

A virus is small computer programs that can get enter in computer and self-replicate. The most common ways to enter viruses in computer system are unsafe browsing of internet and transmission of data through various devices. Once virus enters in your computer system then it can spread starting with one computer system onto the next and cause interferences with computer working. A computer virus has the ability to delete or corrupt data available in the computer system. A virus can utilize an email program to spread the virus to other email addresses also.

How virus is harmful for your computer system?

Some computer viruses are customized to hurt computer by harming programs, erasing documents, or reformatting the hard drive. Others essentially reproduce themselves or flood a system with traffic, making it difficult to play out any web action. Indeed, even less destructive computer viruses can essentially disturb your system's performance; weaken computer memory and causing continuous computer crashes.

Key symptoms of virus in a computer

On the off chance that you presume your computer have any of the accompanying issues, if it's not too much trouble take a virus filter in your computer

  • Unusually moderate execution
  • Frequent crashes
  • Unknown or new projects that start up when you turn on your computer
  • Mass messages being sent from your email account
  • Changes to your landing page or passwords

Types of computer virus

Boot Sector Virus – This sort of virus taints the ace boot record and it is testing and an unpredictable errand to evacuate this virus and frequently requires the system to be organized. For the most part it spreads through removable media.

Multipartite Virus – This kind of virus spreads through numerous ways. It spoils both the boot sector and executable records simultaneously.

Direct Action Virus – This is additionally called non-resident virus, it gets introduced or remains covered up in the computer memory. It remains joined to the particular kind of documents that it taints. It doesn't influence the client experience and system's presentation.

Resident Virus – Unlike direct action viruses, resident viruses get introduced on the computer. It is hard to distinguish the virus and it is even hard to evacuate a resident virus.

Overwrite Virus – This sort of virus erases all the documents that it contaminates. The main conceivable component to evacuate is to erase the contaminated documents and the end-client needs to lose all the substance in it. Distinguishing the overwrite virus is troublesome as it spreads through messages.


What Is Malware?

Malware or malicious software is the aggregate name of a program which is deliberately designed to cause harm to the computer system, server system, user's computer or computer network. Malware includes viruses, ransomware, spyware, worms, Trojan horses, adware, rogue software, and scareware.  Malware is generally deliver as a link or file over email and requires user to tap on the link or open the file to execute the malware.

Malware has really been a danger to people and organisations since mid 1970s when the Creeper virus originally appeared. From that point time, many computer systems were attacked from many different malware variations, the main cause behind this to harm many more computers.

How malware is harmful for computer system

To put it plainly, malware can unleash destruction on a computer system. Expert Hackers use it to take passwords, erase documents and render computers inoperable. A malware can creates so many issues that impacts day by day activity and drawn out security of an individual or an organization.

Key symptoms of malware in a computer -

Here are a couple of indications that your computer may be contaminated:

  1. Computer turns out to be moderate and inert
  2. computer crashes and restarts much of the time
  3. Applications on your computer crash much of the time
  4. Computer's stockpiling is distant or undermined
  5. Uncommon blunder messages on your computer
  6. Undesirable popup messages

In the event that you notice any of those signs, there is a high possibility of malware contamination on your computer.

  1. Virus
    Viruses are intended to harm computer, its objective is to destroy data, reformatting hard drive, or totally closing down computer system.
  2. Worm
    One of the most widely recognized kinds of malware, worms spread over computer organizes by misusing working system weaknesses. It's an independent program that imitates itself to contaminate different computers, without requiring action from anybody.
  3. Trojan Horse
    Trojan horse, "Trojan", enters computer system masked as an ordinary, disrupt files or program to trick user's into downloading and introducing malware.
  4. Spyware
    Spyware can reach into user's computers without their knowledge. Its intended to follow browsing and internet activity. 
  5. Ransomware
    Ransomware is a kind of malware that can steal and hold users data and than demand money to release back.

Safely browsing the web and using social networks

As we are living in the age of digital world, we browse the web using social networks. To understand the concept of safely browsing the web, we must be aware about the identity protection, proper usage of passwords, privacy, confidentiality of information, cyber stalking, reporting cybercrimes.

Let’s understand all the above-mentioned concepts.

What is identity protection?

Identity Safety is the strategies you practice to ensure that the personal data that makes up you’re on the web or genuine self is secured and not taken so others may mimic you in any capacity whatsoever (access to your financial balances, making on the web profiles with your name on it, and so on.)

What is Identity Theft?

Identity theft is the point at which somebody takes your own data and utilizations it without your consent. There are a few types of data theft, and every one can affect in different manner.

It’s absolutely impossible to inoculate yourself against Identity theft totally. But if you're vigilant in studying how your information can be at risk and what fraudsters can do with it, you'll be better able to protect your data and act quickly if someone does manage to steal it.

Step by step instructions to Protect Identity from Identity Thefts

  1. Protect your PC and cell phone with strong, up to mark protection application
  2. Learn to spot spam and scams
  3. Use strong passwords
  4. Be alert

Password or Secret key

  • Secret key as a protection
    A secret key is a series of identities used to confirm the Identity of a client during the validation procedure. Passwords are normally utilized in conjuncture with a username; they are intended to be known distinctly to the client and permit that client to access a device, application or site. Passwords may vary in length and may contain letters, numbers and special symbols. Different terms that can be utilized conversely are identification for when the secret phrase utilizes more than single word, and password and password key for when the secret word utilizes just numbers rather than a blend of identities, for example, personal ID number.
  • Steps to make proper utilization of passwords
    Think about your secret key as a gatekeeper that remains between your own data and possible online risks. Given the best defensive covering, the odds of anything traversing are incredibly limited.
    At the point when you make passwords with mixes of letters and numbers that are special for all of your online records, you'll make it increasingly hard to open your identity – keeping your data sheltered and secure. You should secret key ensure every one of your devices: PC, tablet, cell phone, and so forth.
  • The most effective method to make a proper secret key
    Different people pick a secret key that is anything but difficult to recall – like a location, pet's name or unique date – and use it again and again. The thing is, assailants attempt these first since they're snippets of data that are anything but difficult to acquire.

To secure your passwords on the web, follow these tips:

  1. Make sure it's a base length of eight characters.
  2. Use a mix of upper- and lower-case letters and in any event one number.
  3. Include in any event one identity that isn't a letter or number.
  4. Be alert - utilize the primary letter of each expression of an important sentence or expression, at that point make it considerably harder by changing a portion of the letters to numbers (for example utilize a "3" to supplant an "e").
  5. Try a blend of your pet's name, your preferred numbers, the road you experienced childhood with or different mixes.


The Computer Privacy protection is an intense issue to be disregarded these days. "Everything you do on the web and offline is checked by somebody.” state different people out there and they are correct not in light of their distrustfulness but since the Private Information is excessively esteemed for its proprietor. In any case, is it conceivable to ensure our Computer Privacy without stopping the link? Perceive how someone could take your Private Information. Uncover what is the distinction between Computer Privacy and Internet Privacy.

How to set Secure Passwords those hackers cannot break.

  1. What is Computer Privacy? This is the ability to control what PC data you uncover about yourself and to control who can get to this personal data.
  2. What is Internet Privacy? It is a piece of the PC protection. It is the ability to control what data you uncover about yourself in Internet, the ability to control which sites, remote contents and web applications can get to this personal data, and the ability to know whether these sites, contents, and web applications are sufficient reliable.
  3. What is Private Information? Almost certainly, your PC keeps huge amounts of data about:
    • all sites you have visited
    • all records, envelopes, pictures, recordings, documents you have opened and made
    • all email, discussion names and passwords you have
    • all bank and charge card data you have spared
    • all Skype-to-Skype messages and ICQ talks you have made
    • all innovation, composing or craftsmanship you have developed
    • your internet shopping exercises: when you visit the online store request page of some site
    • your common photographs, recordings, age information, leisure activities, inclinations, even considerations with everybody out there for the most part the entirety of your PC propensities and activities
    • All PC and web information you consider to private is your private data.
  4. How to Generate Secure Passwords that Hacker can't break?
    We use passwords consistently to get to our PC accounts, email accounts, ledgers, Facebook and Twitter records and many different administrations. There is extraordinary compulsion to utilize one secret phrase for all records and to make it short and simple to recall. Nonetheless, this has pulverizing impact on our protection and protection. On the off chance that you feel that you don't have anything to stow away, reconsider.
    In most cases the passwords are hacked to utilize your PC as spam bot, to take your money and private data, to taint your PC with PC infections and spyware, etc.

Confidentiality of Information

Confidentiality applies to shielding unauthorized persons from obtaining information. In other words, access to confidential data can only be obtained by those who are allowed to do so.

Almost all the major security incidents reported today in the media include major confidentiality losses.

Things That You Should Keep Confidential -

  • Social Protection number
  • Phone quantities of companions/family/partners/understudies
  • Driver's permit numbers
  • Bank account numbers
  • Tax data
  • Passwords or identifications
  • Home address or telephone numbers
  • Employee ID number
  • Digital pictures
  • Any personal electronic records containing personal content

What Can We Do To Protect These Information?

  • Encrypt delicate documents.
  • Manage information get to.
  • Physically secure devices and paper archives..
  • Securely discard information, devices, and paper records.
  • Manage information obtaining.
  • Manage information usage.
  • Manage devices

What is Cyber Stalking?

Cyber stalking is a web-based stalking. It includes the repeated usage of the web or other electronic intends to bother, threaten or scare a personal or gathering. Regular attributes of cyber stalking may incorporate deceitful indictments or posting slanderous proclamations, observing somebody's online action or physical area, risks, Identity theft, and information decimation or control by sending an infection to a casualty's devices.

Cyber stalkers may utilize email, texts, messages, and other correspondence modes to follow you. Cyber stalking can appear as lewd behavior, wrong contact, or unwanted thoughtfulness regarding your life and to your family's exercises.

Why we have to be aware of cyber stalking

Cyber stalking can take a wide range of forms, yet in the broadest sense, it is stalking or provocation that happens by means of online channels, and for example, web based life, gatherings or email. It is ordinarily networkd and continued over some stretch of time.

Instances of Cyber stalking can regularly start as apparently innocuous collaborations. Now and then, particularly toward the start, a couple of peculiar or maybe disagreeable messages may even interest you. Notwithstanding, in the event that they become methodical, it becomes irritating and in any event terrifying.

For instance, in the event that you've gotten a couple of negative remarks on Facebook and Instagram, it might agitate or bother you, however this isn't Cyber stalking yet. For certain people, for example, semi-famous people searching for consideration, antagonistic remarks are really invited.

Important instructions to Fight against Cyber Stalking

  • Be cautious about permitting physical access to your PC and other web-empowered devices like cell phone. Cyber stalkers can utilize application and equipment devices (in some cases appended to the rear of your PC without you in any event, knowing it) to screen their casualties.
  • Be sure you generally log out of your PC programs when you step away from the PC and utilize a screensaver with a secret key. The equivalent goes for passwords on PDAs. Help your family and children to build up similar decent propensities.
  • Make sure to rehearse great secret word the executives and online record protection. Make complex passwords and never share them with others. What's more, make certain to change your passwords often. A secret key director can help with this errand.
  • Delete or make private any online schedules or agendas — even on your informal organization - where you list occasions you intend to join in. That data could permit a cyber stalker to know where and when you want to be some place.
  • A parcel of personal data is frequently shown on informal organizations, for example, your name, date of birth, where you work, and where you live. Utilize the protection settings in the entirety of your online records to confine your internet offering to those outside your confided in circle. You can utilize these settings to quit having your profile show up when somebody looks for your name. You can square people from seeing your posts and photographs, as well.

What is Cyber Crime?

Cybercrime is crime that either targets or uses a PC, a PC network or a network device.

Most, yet not all, cybercrime is carried out by cybercriminals or hackers who need to bring in money. Cybercrime is completed by people or organizations.

Some cybercriminals are composed, utilize propelled methods and are profoundly actually gifted. Others are fledgling hackers.

Once in a while, cybercrime aims to harm PCs for reasons other than benefit. These could be political or personal.

Types of Cyber Crime

DDoS Attacks

These are utilized to make an online service inaccessible and bring the system somewhere around overpowering the webpage with traffic from an assortment of sources. Huge systems of tainted devices known as Botnets are made by storing malware on clients' PCs. The programmer at that point hacks into the framework once the system is down.


Botnets are systems from traded PCs that are controlled remotely by remote hackers. The distant hackers at that point send spam or assault different PCs through these botnets. Botnets can likewise be utilized to go about as malware and perform pernicious undertakings.

Identity theft

This cybercrime happens when a criminal accesses a client's very own data to take reserves, get to private data, or partake in assessment or medical coverage misrepresentation. They can likewise open a telephone/web account in your name, utilize your name to design a crime and guarantee government benefits in your name. They may do this by discovering client's passwords through hacking, recovering personal data from online life, or sending phishing messages.

Cyber stalking

This sort of cybercrime includes online badgering where the client is exposed to a plenty of online messages and messages. Ordinarily Cyber stalkers utilize internet based life, sites and web search tools to scare a client and impart dread. For the most part, the digital stalker knows their casualty and causes the personal to feel apprehensive or worried for their protection.

Social Engineering

Social building includes lawbreakers reaching you for the most part by telephone or email. They need to pick up your certainty and generally act like a client support specialist so you'll give the essential data required. This is normally a secret key, the organization you work for, or bank data. Cybercriminals will discover what they can about you on the web and afterward endeavor to include you as companion social records. When they access a record, they can sell your data or secure records in your name.

Where to Report For Cyber Crime

You can enlist a digital wrongdoing FIR at the closest nearby police headquarters to report them. It is obligatory under Section 154 of CrPC, for each cop to record the data/grumbling of an offense, regardless of the ward in which the wrongdoing was submitted.

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