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Representing System of Linear Equations using Matrix

Here, we are going to learn about Representing System of Linear Equations using Matrix.
Submitted by Raja Sethupathi V, on January 28, 2019

A Linear Equation can be represented in matrix form using a:

  • Coefficient Matrix
  • Variable Matrix and
  • Constant Matrix

The System of linear equation in three variables,

a1x+b1y+c1z=d1
a2x+b2y+c2z=d2
a3x+b3y+c3z=d3

The Matrix Representation would be

a1 b1 c1       xd1
a2 b2 c2y      =d2
a3 b3 c3 zd3

We generalize the result of n variable

a1 b1 c1             
a2 b2 c2     __     Coefficient Matrix
a3 b3 c3
x,y,z  are Variable Matrix
d1,d2,d3 are Constant Matrix

Consider the System,

x+2y+3z=4
5x+6y+7z=8
8x+7y+6z=5

Then, the coefficient matrix for the above system is

1 2 3 
5 6 7 
8 7 6

Variable Matrix are X, Y, Z

Constant Matrix are 4,8,5

Representing of linear Matrix in above System is:

1 2 3 x     4
5 6 7 y     = 8
8 7 6 z     5

C++ program to implement the Representation of Linear Equation in Matrix form

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main()
{
	cout<< "Enter the number of variables in the equations: ";
	int n;
	
	cin>>  n;
	char var = 'x';
	int a[n][n],b[n][1];
	
	for (int i = 0; i< n; i++)
	{
		for (int j = 0; j < n; j++)
		{
			cin>> a[i][j];   //Get the Matrix values
		}
		cin>> b[i][0]; //Get the constant values
	}
	
	cout<< "\nLinear Equation in Matrix representation is: \n";
	for (int i = 0; i< n; i++)
	{
		for (int j = 0; j < n; j++)
		{
			cout<<" "<< a[i][j]; //print the matrix values
		}
		//print the variable and constant values
		cout<< "  " <<static_cast<char>(var) << "  =  " << b[i][0]<< "\n";
		var++;
	}
	
	return 0;
}

Output

Enter the number of variables in the equations:
3
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
8 7 6 5
Linear Equation in Matrix representation is: 
1 2 3 x   =    4
5 6 7 y   = 8
8 7 6 z   =   5

Applications:

Systems of Linear Equations can be used to solve some Real – Time Problems:

  • Solving a Mixture problems
  • Distance Rate Time problems
  • Business Based Problems





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