More about Geology Branches

Learn about the branches of geology related to Tectonics, Time focused branches, and more.
Submitted by Devyani Nagare, on February 27, 2022

Prerequisite: Branches of Geology

Next, we have more about geology branches. We have divided the branches into relatable sections; geology branches related to Tectonics, Time focused branches, and more.

Tectonics Branches

Involves the of Earth's crust movement and the deformation due geological process, and through time contributing to the mountain building, and also the understanding of earthquake and volcanic belts. Seismology, volcanology, tectonophysics, and a few more branches of geology commonly study the underlying process impacted by plate tectonics.

  • Seismology: It is the study that measures how waves travel through and around Earth due to earthquakes.
  • Tectonophysics: It involves the physical process of the Earth's crust that acts on the behavior of waves.
  • Volcanology: Study to understand how volcanoes erupt, the related phenomena of lava and magma.
  • Neotectonics: Understanding of Earth's crust deformation and movement with respect to the current time.
  • Seismotectonics: This branch is concerned about how earthquakes, active tectonics, and related activities to seismic.

Time focused branches of geology

Time is divided from the earliest rock formation, that is billion years ago; the four major divisions are: Precambrian time major division of time, and the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras.

  • Stratigraphy: Study of measuring geology time from the layering of rocks and strata.
  • Paleontology: Studying fossil records with help of rocks and understanding the interaction of organisms and their evolution in their environment.
  • Micropaleontology: Study of microfossils's characterization.
  • Geomorphology: Understanding formation of physical features, landforms, and geological structures on Earth.
  • Geochronology: Study of old rocks and geological events so as to date them using signatures inherent in rocks.

Understanding of weathering, transportation, and deposition via Geology Branches

These branches are to study the understanding of the erosion, movement, and deposition of sediments.

  • Sedimentology: Sedimentation is the process of sand, silt, and clay process. Sedimentology is the study of sedimentation.
  • Surficial Geology: Layering of surface sediment with overlying bedrock during the glacial retreat or in lakes.
  • Bedrock Geology: The study of solid rock beneath surficial sediments with their age that is stratigraphic sequences, morphology, and understanding of rock properties.
  • Lithology: Classification of rocks based on their physical and chemical properties.

More Branches:

Structural Geology:

Study of three-dimensional distribution of rock in the Earth's crust produce due to exogenously and endogenously generated forces.

Detailed study of surfaces, and the composition so as to understand the tectonic history, past geological events. The overall study of structural features formed.


It is a concern with the scientific study of the origin and evolution of the landform and relief features of the earth that are created by physical, chemical, or biological processes. Internal earth's crust geological activity includes tectonic activity and volcanism also the weathering due to externally driven forces of wind, water, waves, and glacial ice.

Economic geology:

Study of earth materials or resources used for thr economic and/or industrial purposes. Including the overall study of the material's formation, mode of occurrence, and distribution its location and exploitation.


Study of Hydrological properties of rocks, groundwater occurrence, its movements, and action. Understanding how water interacts with geological systems and finding the best way to conserve the quality of groundwater and protects the whole resource.

Geophysics :

It is concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis and properties like density and magnetism. Geological applications of physics to study the Earth's Shape, gravitational and magnetic fields, internal structure and composition, and many more.


The science to use the tools and principles of chemistry to understand the geological systems. Geochemistry deals with the study of occurrence, distribution, abundance, mobility of different elements in the earth's crust.

Mining Geology :

Combination of economic geology and mining engineering principles for the development of mineral resources so as to develop a determined ore deposit.

Other Geology Branches:

  • Palynology
  • Tephrochronology
  • Paleoseismology
  • Meteorology
  • Marine Geology
  • Engineering Geology
  • Planetary geology
  • Geochronology
  • Astrogeology
  • Dendrochronology
  • Glaciology
  • Photogeology
  • Selenology
  • Thermochronology

Geology branches are not limited depicts the science and nature of the world.

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