MySQL FOREIGN Key

MySQL | FOREIGN Key: Learn about the MySQL FOREIGN Key, with its explanation, syntax, and query examples.
Submitted by Apurva Mathur, on September 15, 2022

FOREIGN Key

FOREIGN Key is a key that is used to establish the relationship between two tables.

Suppose we have two tables named "Country" and "States". These tables have the following attributes:

  • Country: Country_ID, Country_name.
  • State: State_ID, Country_ID, State_name

Where "Country_ID" in the "Country" table is the primary key and "State_ID", in the "State" table is the primary key.

From these attributes, you'll observe that the "State" table is related to the "Country" table through the attribute "Country_ID". This is the main concept of the foreign key, the foreign key creates a relationship between two tables. Now, in this case, "Country_ID" act as a foreign key in the "State" table,

Let us see this in detail,

Table: Country

Table: Country

Here in this table, we have country id and country name.

Table: State

Table: State

This is "State" table, as we can see in this table; all the countries are linked with country_ID.

So for example if I want to know the country name of state_ID 107 then I can just simply see the country_ID it is associated with. Here country_ID would be 1003 and we’ll see country_name in country table where country _ID is 1003 we’ll get our country, i.e. China.

With the help of a foreign key we can get the information from another table.

FOREIGN Key Syntax

CREATE TABLE table_name(
  FOREIGN KEY (Column_name) data type references table_name(column_name)
);

FOREIGN Key Examples

CASE 1: Creating foreign key

Now, let us just take the above example, here I am making two tables, "Country" and "State", and as stated above "Country" table will be having Country_ID (primary key) and Country_Name as its two columns of this table, whereas the "State" table will be having three columns named as state_ID (primary key), Country_ID (foreign key) and Statename.

CREATE TABLE country (
  `country_id` INT NOT NUL PRIMARY KEY, 
  `country_name` VARCHAR (45) NULL
);
CREATE TABLE state (
  `state_id` INT NOT NUL, 
  `country_id` INT, 
  `state_name` VARCHAR (45) NULL, 
  PRIMARY KEY (state_id), 
  FOREIGN KEY (country_id) REFERENCES country (country_id)
);

And this is how we create foreign key while creating a table.

CASE 2: Making a foreign key after table creation using alter statement

In this case, we will use the following syntax,

ALTER TABLE table_name
ADD FOREIGN KEY (column_name) REFRENCES table_name (column_name);

CASE 3: Deleting an existing foreign key

In this case, we will use the following syntax,

ALTER TABLE table_name
DROP FOREIGN KEY FK_(column_name);

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