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File Oriented and Database Approach in DBMS



Learn: In this article, we are going to discuss about the File Processing System and database approach, some disadvantages of file oriented approach.
Submitted by Prerana Jain, on May 20, 2018

File processing system

In the earlier age the computer system was used to store business records and produce different information. They were generally faster and more accurate than equivalent manual systems. These systems stored groups of records in separate file and so they were called file processing system.

In a typical file processing systems, each department has its own files, designed especially for those applications. The department itself works with the data processing staff, sets policies or standards for the format and maintenance of its files.

Disadvantages of File processing system

1) Data redundancy

In computer system many files are likely in the different formats and the programs are written in different programming languages. Moreover, the same information may be duplicated in several files, this duplication of data is known as data redundancy.

Example: The address and telephone number of a particular customer may appear in a file that consist of saving account records and in a file that consist of checking account record.

2) Data inconsistency

Various copies contain the same type of data which may no longer which means that various copies of same data may contain different kind of information.

Example: A changed customer address may be reflected in savings account records but not elsewhere in the system.

3) Difficulty in accessing data

In file processing system it is very difficult to access the data in a specific way and it also require a special application program which carry out new task.

4) Data isolation

Because data are scattered in various files and files may be in different formats, writing new applications program to retrieve the appropriate data is difficult.



5) Integrity problem

Database must satisfy a particular consistency constraint. These constraints are added in application program.

Example: The balance of a bank account may never fall below a prescribed amount.

6) Atomicity problem

A computer system, like any other mechanical or electrical devices, is subject to failure. In many applications, it is crucial that if failure occurs, the data be restored to the consistent state that existed prior to the failure.

7) Concurrent access anomalies

If two programs run concurrently it is important to has supervision. But supervision is difficult to provide because data is decentralised in file processing system. In such an environment, interaction updates may result in inconsistent data.

8) Security problems

In this not every user of the database system should be able to access all the data.

Database approach

A database approach represents some aspects of real world called universe. Database management system protects the database and maintains it over long period of time. DBMS provides a view facility that enables user to have higher view of database.

Functions of Database management approach

  • Database management allow us to manipulating and sharing the database among various users and applications.
  • It also provides a recovery system to restore data in consistent state.
  • It allows us to creating standard and user- friendly interface and supports abstract and multimedia data types.
  • DBMS enhances the database programmer’s productivity by supporting code reusability.
  • It also enhances the system portability and support extensibility.
  • In DBMS data redundancies and inconsistencies in data are reduced due to single file formats and duplication of data is eliminated.





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