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Introduction to Routers and its protocols | Networking

In this tutorial, we will introduce you to router. Also, we will learn about Protocols used with router and its working.
Submitted by Mahima Rao, on November 20, 2018

Introduction to Router

Routers are network layer devices. Data on the network layer is known as packets. Routers work to forward packets from one network to another. Routers also maintain the address table.

One thing you should always keep in mind is that the Router does not send a packet to the destination host but rather to the destination network.

For example, a host is sending data to another host that is in another network. Router's only situation in this is that it receives data from a network and sends it to another network. After this, the responsibility of switching the data to the host is to switch.

As we told you earlier, routers routing tables maintain. In a simple routing table, the IP address of the final destination network of a packet is the IP address of the next network, and the routing is maintained.

Final destination network is the network in which destination host is sent for which data has been sent. Next network is a network that is between the source network and the destination network. Such networks are also called next hop. And the routing metrics are used to find the shortest path to the final network.

Working of Routers

The router is a Hardware Networking Device. It is used in the network. Whenever there is a data that travels from one network to another in the form of a Packet then the Router receives the Packet data and forwards the Destination Device after analyzing any hidden information in the Data Packet. This Networking Device is used to add different Networks via Wire or Wirelessly in Upsa. However, it is also used at home, which we call the Wireless Router with which you access the Internet.

As you would know, Computer network follows the OSI Model. The router works on the Network Layer from the 7 Layer of the OSI Model. This device is made from Hardware and Software. It has an Operating System, CPU, Memory Storage and some I / O Ports. This Operating System is not like Windows or MAC. Routing Algorithm and Routing Table are stored in Storage Memory.

It is found through the Routing Algorithm and Routing Table that the input packet has been received. To send that packet to which network or to the corner device which analyses it.

For example, let's consider a courier boy as a router. Courier boy receives the courier from the courier office. After this, he notes the address and name on Parcel. After which he decides which place and where to give Parcel. After that, he sends the Parcel to the receiver's address. Now let’s understand this example through routers’ perspective.

According to the above example, "Parcel" is your data packet. Like the courier, boy finds the address. Similarly, Router also selects the Shortest Path to detect the Receiver Address of Packets by the Routing Table after which it is sent. As there is a list of an address near the courier boy, there is also a description in the Routing Table.

Protocols used with Routers

Routers use 2 types of protocols to forward data to a network:

  • Routed protocols
    Every device in such protocols is given an IP address manually. Only then devices know each other's location. An example of this type of protocol is the IP (Internet Protocol). Data is sent through such protocols.
  • Routing protocols
    Such protocols are used between routers. With the help of these, routers update their routing tables. When a router receives information from a new network, it updates it in its routing table and this information updates with other routers automatically with the help of routing protocols. In the example of routing protocols, the main name is EIGRP, RIP, and OSPF.





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