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Static and Dynamic Routing in Networking

In this article, we will learn about the two basic methods available for building Routing table i.e. Static routing and Dynamic Routing. Both these methods are being explained in detail.
Submitted by Mahima Rao, on November 21, 2018

Static Routing

The network administrator manually creates, maintains and updates the Static routing table. The route for every network is manually configured on every router. With this, you can control routing at a very deep level. But this approach is impractical for large networks.

In this approach, routers do not share routes with each other, due to this there is no excess stress on the router's RAM / CPU and also the bandwidth is saved as well. Static routing fault is not tolerant because everything in it is manually done. So whenever a link is down or a new router is added then routers have to manually make changes. Those routers who work in the pure static environment are incapable of selecting another better route if any links are unavailable.

Static routes have an administrative distance of 1, so preference is given to them before dynamic routes. This administrative distance can also be changed. The static routes of which static routes are adjusted are called floating static route. Some advantages of the lower static routing are being given:

  • In the static routing, the CPU overhead is very low.
  • Overhead is not present at all in the bandwidth because routers do not share updates with each other.
  • With Static routing, you can control the network at the deep level.

Some disadvantages of the lower static routing are also being given:

  • If there is a change in the network, then it has to do manually on all routers.
  • If any link goes down, there is no fault tolerant in it.
  • Static routing is impractical for large networks.

Dynamic Routing

A dynamic routing table is created, maintained and updated by routing protocols. Routing protocols contain the following protocols:

  • RIP (Routing Information Protocol)
  • IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
  • EIGRP - (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
  • OSPF - (Open Shortest Path First)

In the dynamic routing, routers share routing information with each other. This increases the overhead of CPU and Memory and bandwidth is also used. But if there is a link down in the network, routing protocols can dynamically select another path.

Below are some advantages of dynamic routing being given:

  • Dynamic routing can be easily configured on large networks.
  • Automatically able to choose a better path.
  • Able to load balance between different links.

Some disadvantages of lower dynamic routing are also being given:

  • Dynamic routing uses bandwidth.
  • The router has an additional load on the CPU.
  • Route's choice is in the hands of the routing protocol. The administrator cannot do anything.

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