Cloud Computing Tutorial

Cloud Scalability and Fault Tolerance

In this tutorial, we will learn about the cloud scalability and fault tolerance, objectives of fault tolerance in cloud computing, key principles behind cloud computing device fault tolerance, etc. By Rahul Gupta Last updated : June 02, 2023

1. Cloud Scalability

In cloud computing, cloud scalability refers to the ability to increase or reduce IT resources as required to meet evolving demands. One of the hallmarks of the cloud and the key factor of its burgeoning popularity with companies is scalability.

Using existing cloud computing technology, data storage space, processing power and networking can all be escalated. Better still, scaling, usually with little or no interruption or downtime, can be achieved rapidly and easily. Third-party cloud providers now have the entire infrastructure in place; in the past, the process could take weeks or months to scale with on-site physical infrastructure and entail enormous costs.

1.1 How to achieve cloud scalability?

To set up a personalized, scalable cloud solution via a public cloud, private cloud, or hybrid cloud, businesses have several options.

In cloud computing, two specific forms of scalability exist vertical and horizontal scaling.

We can add or subtract power to an existing cloud server memory upgrade, storage, or computing power with vertical scaling, also known as "scaling up" or "scaling down". This generally indicates that scaling has an upper limit based on the scaling capability of the server or machine; scaling above that also includes downtime.

We can add more resources like servers to our system using horizontal scalability to spread the workload across computers, which in turn improves efficiency and storage space. For companies with high-availability services that need limited downtime, horizontal scaling is essential.

2. Cloud Fault Tolerance

In cloud computing, fault tolerance is conceptually the same as in private or hosted environments. In other words, it means the infrastructure's ability to continue to provide service/services to underlying applications even when one or more component fails. To continue to work through failure or repair, we do not need to configure certain facilities for our infrastructure to use.

2.1 Objectives of Fault Tolerance in Cloud Computing

The fault-tolerant system uses backup components that take the place of failed components automatically, ensuring no service loss. They include:

  • Hardware systems
    Hardware systems can be backed up using identical or equivalent systems. For instance, using an identical server running in parallel, with all operations mirrored to the backup server, a server can be made fault-tolerant.
  • Software systems
    Software systems can be backed up using software instances. For example, it is possible to continuously replicate a database with customer information on another machine and operations can be mechanically redirected to another database in case a primary database goes down.
  • Power sources
    Power sources use alternative sources using fault-tolerant. In many instances, organizations have power generators that can be used in case the electricity fails.
    Similarly, using redundancy, any system or component that is a single point of failure can be made fault-tolerant.
  • Security Breach Occurrences
    Owing to security failures, there are many explanations about why fault tolerance exists. The server's hacking adversely affects the server and results in a leak of data. Ransomware, phishing, virus attack, etc. are other explanations for the need for fault tolerance in the form of security violations.

Key principles behind Cloud Computing Device Fault Tolerance

  • Replication
    For every operation, the fault-tolerant system operates on the principle of running many other replicates. Therefore, if one aspect of the device goes wrong, it has other instances that can be put to keep it going instead. For example, a database of clusters that has 3 servers with the same information on each of them. All the acts are written on each of them, such as adding data, upgrading, and deleting. The redundant servers will be in inactive mode unless and until the availability of them is requested by any fault tolerance scheme.
  • Redundancy
    If any part of the system fails or moves to a downstate, then it is necessary to have backup systems. For example, due to some hardware faults, a website programmer that has MS SQL as its database can fail in between. In the redundancy principle, a server works with an emergency database comprising many backup resources.

Techniques for Fault Tolerance in Cloud Computing

When developing a fault tolerance scheme, all the facilities have to be given priority. Special priority needs to be given to the database since it drives many other units.

The enterprise has to work on the test after deciding the objectives. Take the company's forum website, for example, which allows users to log in and make comments. If any problem causes the authentication services to malfunction, users may not be able to log in. The platform then becomes a read-only one and does not fulfill the objective. But remediation can be assured with fault-tolerant systems, and the user will search for details with minimal effect.

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