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Advantages and disadvantages of different types of Operating Systems

In this article, we are going to learn about the different types of operating systems, its advantages and disadvantages.
Submitted by Mahak Jain, on November 07, 2018

There are following types of Operating systems:

  1. Batch Operating System
  2. Time-Sharing Operating System
  3. Distributed Operating System
  4. Network Operating System
  5. Real-Time Operating System

1) Batch Operating System

There is no direct interaction of this operating system with the computer.

There is an individual operator which takes similar kind of jobs having the same needs and requirements and then group them into different batches. It is the work of the operator to sort the jobs with the same requirements.


  • Processors of the batch systems are aware of the time duration of the job even when it is present in the queue.
  • Batch systems can be shared by multiple users.
  • There I very less idle time of the batch system.
  • It enables us to manage the efficiently large load of work.


  • It is very difficult to debug the batch systems
  • It proves to be costly sometimes
  • If any job fails, then it is difficult to predict the time


Payrolls Systems, Banks Statement etc.

2) Time-Sharing Operating System

Some time is given to each task to execute or et implemented.so that each task is able to work smoothly. Each and every user occupies the time of CPU as they use a single system.

Thus these systems are also known to be multitasking systems. Hence the task could be undertaking either by a single user or even multiple users. Quantum is the word used for the time required by each task. after each quantum, the OS switches over to the next task.


  • Duplication of software is less probable
  • Each task is given equal importance
  • The CPU idle time can be decreased


  • Problem of reliability
  • Care of security and integrity is to be taken of user data and programs
  • There is a problem in data communication


Multics, Unix etc.

3) Distributed Operating System

Independent systems have their own memory unit and CPU. These are called as loosely coupled or distributed systems. These systems processors vary in sizes and functions. The major benefit of working is that it is always viable that a single user can access the files or software which are not currently present on the system but actually present on some other system connected in this network i.e., remote access is enabled in the devices which are connected in this network.


  • The data exchange speed is increased by using electronic mails
  • All systems are entirely independent]et of each other
  • Failure of one system is not going to affect the other
  • The resources are shared and hence the computation is very fast and speedy
  • There is a reduction in load on their host computers
  • Delay in processing reduces


  • If the main network fails, this will stop the complete communication.
  • To establish such systems, the language which is used are not clearly and well defined still.
  • They are very expensive.
  • The underlying software is highly complex.

Examples: LOCUS etc.


4) Network Operating System

These systems run on a server. These systems provide the functionality to manage data, users, applications, security, groups, and also some other networking roles. These allow shared access to networking functions on minor or small private network. All the users who know the configuration, of all the other users in the network, their private or individual connections etc. And hence these are referred to as tightly coupled systems.


  • The servers are Highly stable and centralized
  • Servers handle Security concerns
  • New technologies and hardware up-gradation can be easily integrated
  • Server access is possible remotely from various locations and different types of systems


  • Costly servers
  • Depended on central location
  • Regular updates and maintenance required


MS Windows Server 2003, MS Windows Server 2008, NetWare, BSD etc.

5) Real-Time Operating System

Used in real-time systems. The time interval which is needed to process and respond to inputs is very less. This time interval is known as response time.

Real-time systems are used when there are very strict time needs like missile systems, robots etc.

There are two types of Real-Time Operating System:

  • Hard Real-Time Systems
    For the applications where time constraints or conditions are very strict and even the smallest or shortest possible delay is not accepted. These systems are mainly built for saving a life like automatic opening parachutes or airbags which are required to be immediately available in case of an accident. Virtual memory is mostly not used in these systems.
  • Soft Real-Time Systems
    For applications where for less strict time-constraint.


  • Maximum use of devices and system thus gives more output from all the resources
  • Time given for shifting tasks is very less
  • It Focusses on running applications and gives less importance to queue applications
  • Size of programs are small
  • Error free
  • Memory allocation is well managed


  • Only some task run at the same time
  • Sometimes the system resources are not good enough and they are costly as well
  • Complex and difficult to write algorithms are used
  • It requires specific device drivers
  • They are very less prone to switching tasks


Medical imaging systems, industrial control, weapon systems, air traffic control systems, etc.


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