Process Operations in Operating System

In this tutorial, we will learn about the process operations in the operating system, different process operations which are managed by operating system. By Amit Shukla Last updated : May 06, 2023

The operations of process carried out by an operating system are primarily of two types:

  1. Process creation
  2. Process termination

1. Process Creation

Process creation is a task of creating new processes. There are different situations in which a new process is created. There are different ways to create new process. A new process can be created at the time of initialization of operating system or when system calls such as fork () are initiated by other processes. The process, which creates a new process using system calls, is called parent process while the new process that is created is called child process. The child processes can create new processes using system calls. A new process can also create by an operating system based on the request received from the user.

The process creation is very common in running computer system because corresponding to every task that is performed there is a process associated with it. For instance, a new process is created every time a user logs on to a computer system, an application program such a MS Word is initiated, or when a document printed.

2. Process termination

Process termination is an operation in which a process is terminated after the execution of its last instruction. This operation is used to terminate or end any process. When a process is terminated, the resources that were being utilized by the process are released by the operating system. When a child process terminates, it sends the status information back to the parent process before terminating. The child process can also be terminated by the parent process if the task performed by the child process is no longer needed. In addition, when a parent process terminates, it has to terminate the child process as well became a child process cannot run when its parent process has been terminated.

Process Operations in Operating System

The above figure shows the hierarchical structure of processes.

The termination of a process when all its instruction has been executed successfully is called normal termination. However, there are instances when a process terminates due to some error. This termination is called as abnormal termination of a process.

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