Artificial Intelligence: What It is, Types, Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages

In this tutorial, we will learn about the Artificial Intelligence and its basics, what is Artificial Intelligence? History of AI, how does AI work? AI classifications/types, Applications of AI, advantages, and disadvantages of AI. By IncludeHelp Last updated : April 12, 2023

Table of Contents

What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

"Artificial Intelligence is a branch of computer science; AI enables us to create intelligent computerized machines which can think, behave and take decisions like a human."

Artificial intelligence is implemented by applying cognitive processes to examine the patterns of the human brain. As a result, intelligent software and computer systems can be developed. Robots, chatbots, and related innovations are an example of Artificial Intelligence.

The purpose of artificial intelligence is to advance computer capabilities that are analogous to aspects of human understanding, such as learning, reasoning, and problem-solving.

A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence

The following timelines are showing a brief history of artificial intelligence -

  • 1956: The term "artificial intelligence" was originally used by John McCarthy at a conference.
  • 1969: Shakey created a mobile robot. It can accomplish things with a purpose rather than merely a set of instructions.
  • 1997: Deep Blue, a supercomputer, was created. It was a huge milestone for IBM to construct this enormous computer which defeated a world champion in a chess match.
  • 2002: A first viable robotic vacuum cleaner was invented and launched in the market.
  • 2005-2019: In this time frame, speech recognition, image processing, RPA (Robotic Process Automation), advanced robots, smart houses, and smart cities were invented.
  • 2020 - 2022: OpenAI GPT-3 was first introduced. It is a language model which converses. ChatGPT may respond to follow-up inquiries, confess mistakes, dispute faulty premises, and reject unsuitable requests using pre-trained models and algorithms.

In this time frame, Medical experts developed a vaccine during the early stages of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. The algorithm can predict the RNA sequence of the virus in only 27 seconds, which is 120 times faster than other methods.

How does Artificial Intelligence Work?

AI systems learn from patterns and characteristics in the data that they study by combining vast volumes of data with sophisticated, repetitive processing methods.

Every time an AI system processes data, it tests and assesses its performance and gains new knowledge.

Since AI never requires a break, it can swiftly complete hundreds, thousands, or even millions of jobs, learning a tremendous lot in a short period and becoming incredibly proficient at whatever it's being trained to do.

AI is more than just a single computer program or application; it is an entire discipline or science. The objective of AI is to create a computer system capable of imitating human behavior and solving complicated issues like a human brain.

To achieve this goal, AI systems employ a wide range of methodologies and procedures, as well as a wide range of diverse technology. Each time an Artificial Intelligence system performs a round of data processing, it tests and measures its performance and uses the results to develop additional expertise.

Artificial Intelligence Classifications/Types

Current AI systems are capable of performing complicated computations at high speed. They can manage large amounts of data and generate reliable predictions. Artificial intelligence is divided into four levels:

1. Reactive Machines

These are the machines that have no memories or previous experiences. It is 'reactive' in nature. AI's successful implementation shows that in the late 1990s, IBM's Deep Blue chess computer defeated international grandmaster Garry Kasparov six times in a row. Deep Blue could recognize chess pieces and understand how they should move to win. Its great intelligence allows it to guess all of the opponent's probable movements faster than a human. As a consequence, it could compute the best movements for each scenario.

2. Limited Memory

This sort of contraption can see back in time. A famous example is self-driving automobiles which can detect the speed and direction of other vehicles.

3. Theory of Mind

This classification contains machine learning, which attempts to reproduce the entire physical world - humans, animals, and the things that can think and feel.

4. Self-awareness

This class has machines with self-aware systems. This level extends the Theory of Mind stage by giving robots self-awareness for a "reason." This will give machines new intelligence.

Applications of Artificial Intelligence

Applications of AI are not limited; almost in all areas, AI is being used. Some of the key areas are as follows:

  1. Gaming: In strategic games, AI plays a crucial role in allowing machines to consider a vast number of viable positions based on deep knowledge. For instance, chess, river crossing, N-queens issues, and so on.
  2. Speech Recognition: AI-based voice recognition systems can hear and articulate phrases and grasp their meanings while a human speaks to them.
  3. Handwriting Recognition: Handwriting recognition applications read text written on paper, detects letter forms, and converts it to editable text.
  4. Intelligent Robots: Whatever instructions are given by a human, Robots react accordingly.
  5. Expert Systems: Users can get explanations and guidance from machines or software.
  6. Vision Systems: Visual input on the computer is understood, explained, and described by systems.
  7. Natural Language Processing: Interact with the computer and understands human language. Natural Language Processing (NLP) is a subfield of AI that assists computers in understanding and interpreting human language. NLP can be considered a bridge between human communication and machine comprehension.
  8. Cyber Security: AI can identify abnormalities and adapt and respond to threats by using machine learning algorithms and large amounts of sample data.
  9. Online Customer Support: The majority of online customer care and voice messaging services are currently being automated by AI.
  10. Banking Fraud Detection: The AI learns to anticipate if a new transaction is fraudulent or not based on large data containing fraudulent and non-fraudulent transactions.
  11. Virtual Assistants: Siri, Cortana, Alexa, and Google are some of the most popular Voice recognition systems used to follow the user's orders. They gather human requests as data, evaluate what is being requested, and provide the response via fetched data. Based on customer choices, these virtual assistants continually enhance and customize solutions.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence

The following list shows the advantages and disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence in the current scenario:

S. No.Advantages of AIDisadvantages of AI
1Zer human errorsJob losses and unemployment is increasing for uneducated or less educated people
2Increase productivityPoses an existential risk
3Zero risksPeople need to more technical to understand
4Helps in strategic decision makingSometimes can be wrong. Skills are needed to work
5AI systems helps to reduces cost of goods and servicesHigh cost to develop AI based system
6AI based systems are able to handles repetitive tasks perfectlyNo creativity
7Round-the-clock availability (24/7)Sometimes not able to handle highly intelligent tasks, so human interaction needed
8Handles low level tasks perfectlyAI systems can do the things but so difficult to explain
9Makes lot of opportunities in the marketAdvancements are making war destructiveness
10AI systems enabled healthcare with advance tools and techniquesResults to loss of skills
11Data science to get quick insightsA complex system to train datasets
12Transform learningA complex application
13Foster communicationLot of technical skills needed, not possible to everyone
14Lot of creativity in AI MachinesHeavy cost to make and complexity
15AI based systems do not understand ethicsHuman interactions are limiting day by day; it's not good to society

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