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Constraint Satisfaction Problems in Artificial Intelligence

In this tutorial, we will study what the constraint satisfaction problems are in the field of Artificial Intelligence, and what knowledge they require for finding the solution to any problem? We will also study about the various types of constraint satisfaction problems which are very popular when dealt with artificial Intelligent Agents. By Monika Sharma Last updated : April 12, 2023

Constraint Satisfaction Problems

constraint satisfaction problems, as the name suggests are the problems which have some constraints which need to be satisfied while solving any problem. In simpler words, we can say that while solving any problem or changing any state to reach to the goal state, our Agent cannot violate the constraints which are defined for any problem in prior.

Parameters for Solving the Constraint Satisfaction Problems

In solving the constraint satisfaction problems, an Agent has the following parameters to consider: a set of variables, Domain, Set of constraints.

1. Set of variables

The variables are like empty containers in an agent (system) where the data is to be placed. Any information or data that the agent deals with has to be stored somewhere and this work is done by the variables. The collection of all the variables that the agent uses to solve that particular problem is known as the set of variables for that problem.

2. Domain

Domain is the field in which knowledge is to be attained by the agent. Any problem deals with the information or data in any particular field and the domain defines this field. A domain can simply be defined as what data or information is to be collected or placed.

3. Set of constraints

It is the collection of all the restrictions and regulations that are imposed on the agent while solving the problem. The Agent cannot violate or avoid these restrictions while performing any action.

Any agent (Artificial Intelligence-based) who solves the constraint satisfaction problems has the above-mentioned parameters embedded in its system.

Solution Methods for Constraint Satisfaction Problems

There are three solution methods for constraint satisfaction problems:

  1. Generate and Test
  2. Backtracking
  3. Consistency Driven


There are many games and puzzles which lie under the constraint satisfactory problem. Some commonly known among them are Sudoku, N-queens problem, Map Coloring Problem, Crossword, Crypt-Arithmetic Problem, Latin Square Problem, etc. All these problems have their own set of rules and regulations that should not be violated and these rules and regulations act as constraints for each of them.

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