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# Important terms used while problem solving in Artificial Intelligence

In this tutorial, we will study the various terms that we come across while solving problems using Artificial Intelligence. By Monika Sharma Last updated : April 12, 2023

## State

The factors which sum up to define the condition in which an agent resides at a particular instant is known as its state.

## State Space

A state space can be defined as the collection of all the problem states. It is the space which describes all possible valid states.

## Move

The process of moving from one problem state to another is known as move. An agent has to take certain moves for reaching from a particular state to the final state or the goal state.

## Rule

A rule can be defined as a description of the move. A move is made according to certain rules, and according to the rules, we can find whether a particular move is valid or not.

## Production rules

The complete set of rules used for describing the movement from initial state to final state for solving any problems are known as its production rules.

## Heuristics

Heuristics is also known as the rule of thumb. Heuristics represent the domain knowledge of an expert system. The expert system develops certain shortcuts and direct ways in order to eliminate worthless problems prior to comparing itself. An example of this can be an expert system made for diagnosing patients and recommending medicine to them.

## Heuristic Functions

It is a function which takes the problem state as an input and produces a value between some extremes. Usually, this extreme interval lies between -10 to +10, where negative 10 indicates that the problem state is the state from where it is impossible to reach the goal state. A positive 10 indicates that the problem state is the goal state.

## Fault Tolerance

Fault tolerance of a system can be defined as the ability of a system to sustain failures and continue functioning. This property of a system is highly valuable because more the fault tolerance level the system has, the more the system is reliable.

## Omniscience

Omniscience means having knowledge of everything. In artificial intelligence, this term is used with agents who have prior knowledge about the solution to every problem at the beginning itself.