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# Highway Engineering MCQs (Multiple-Choice Questions) and Answers

This section contains multiple-choice questions and answers on Highway Engineering and its various topics such as Highway Introduction, Planning & Development, Highway Alignment & Surveys, Highway Geometric Design, Highway Construction Materials, Highway Construction, Highway Drainage & Maintenance, Highway Economics & Finance, Traffic Engineering, and more. Practice these Highway Engineering MCQs to learn and enhance your skills in Highway Engineering.

## Highway Engineering MCQs with Answers and Explanations

Here are the top multiple-choice questions and answers on Highway Engineering MCQs:

1. Which of the following is NOT a primary objective of highway engineering?

1. Efficient transportation of goods and people
2. Minimization of construction costs
3. Ensuring safety for road users

Answer: B) Minimization of construction costs

Explanation:

Highway engineering's main goals are safety, efficiency, and capacity; while lowering construction costs is vital, it is not the main goal.

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2. What is the purpose of a highway geometric design?

1. To determine the type of pavement material to be used
2. To calculate traffic flow rates
3. To estimate construction costs
4. To establish the alignment, cross-section, and profile of the road

Answer: D) To establish the alignment, cross-section, and profile of the road

Explanation:

The process of designing a highway's cross-section, profile, and alignment is necessary to guarantee secure and effective traffic flow.

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3. Which of the following factors is NOT considered during highway planning in India?

1. Traffic volume
2. Population density
3. Climate conditions
4. Terrain and topography

Explanation:

Climate conditions indirectly influence highway planning, they are not directly considered as a primary factor in the planning process.

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4. What is the primary purpose of conducting a traffic volume study in highway planning?

1. To determine the ideal alignment of the highway
2. To estimate the number of lanes required
3. To identify potential hazards along the route
4. To assess the traffic flow and demand

Answer: D) To assess the traffic flow and demand

Explanation:

Traffic volume studies help planners understand the current and future traffic demands on the highway, aiding in the design process.

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5. Which type of terrain presents the greatest challenge for highway alignment and construction?

1. Flat terrain
2. Hilly terrain
3. Desert terrain
4. Coastal terrain

Explanation:

Hilly terrain requires careful alignment planning and construction techniques to navigate slopes, curves, and gradients effectively.

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6. Which of the following is a characteristic feature of rural roads?

1. High traffic volume
2. Extensive use of traffic signals
3. Narrower lanes compared to urban roads
4. Dense population along the road

Explanation:

Rural roads are commonly constructed in locations with fewer houses and structures, they often feature smaller lanes to accommodate lower traffic loads.

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7. What is the primary consideration in the design of urban roads?

3. Allowing for higher speeds
4. Accommodating heavy agricultural machinery

Explanation:

Urban roads are designed to handle higher traffic volumes and are often subjected to greater rainfall-runoff, necessitating proper drainage systems to prevent flooding and pavement damage.

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8. Which of the following factors primarily influences road classification in highway engineering?

1. Traffic volume
3. Surrounding landscape

Explanation:

Road classification depends significantly on the anticipated traffic volume to ensure appropriate design standards and capacity.

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9. Which road classification is designed to provide access to abutting properties and facilitate low-speed, local traffic movement?

4. Expressway

Explanation:

Compared to arterial or collector highways, local roads are usually shorter in width and have lower speed restrictions since they are designed for local traffic access.

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10. What does IRC stand for in the context of Highway Engineering?

Explanation:

A national organization called the Indian Road Congress (IRC) creates policies and specifications for building and maintaining roads in India.

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11. The primary objective of IRC is to?

3. Manage toll collection on highways
4. Conduct safety inspections on bridges

Explanation:

The Indian Road Congress (IRC)'s main goal is to create rules and guidelines that will standardize road-building processes.

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12. Which of the following is NOT typically assessed during reconnaissance in highway engineering?

1. Traffic volume
2. Pavement thickness
3. Right-of-way constraints
4. Geotechnical properties of soil

Explanation:

Pavement thickness is determined during later stages of highway design, while reconnaissance focuses on gathering initial data related to site conditions, traffic patterns, and environmental factors.

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13. What is the purpose of traffic analysis during reconnaissance?

1. To estimate the cost of construction
2. To determine the optimal pavement design
3. To assess the environmental impact
4. To forecast future traffic demands and patterns

Answer: D) To forecast future traffic demands and patterns

Explanation:

Traffic analysis during reconnaissance involves studying existing traffic patterns and forecasting future growth to inform decisions regarding highway design, capacity, and safety measures.

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14. Aerial surveys in highway engineering primarily use which type of aerial platform for data collection?

1. Helicopters
2. Fixed-wing aircraft
3. Blimps
4. Drones

Explanation:

Fixed-wing aircraft can cover huge regions quickly and maintain stable flight paths for good data gathering, they are frequently utilized for aerial surveys in highway engineering.

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15. Which of the following is NOT a primary objective of location surveys in highway engineering?

1. Determining the best route for a new highway
2. Estimating construction costs
3. Evaluating environmental impacts
4. Selecting the most scenic path

Answer: D) Selecting the most scenic path

Explanation:

Location surveys primarily focus on technical, environmental, and economic factors rather than aesthetics.

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16. Which surveying method is commonly used to collect detailed data for highway location studies?

1. Aerial photography
2. GPS survey
3. Total station survey
4. Satellite imagery

Explanation:

Total station surveying provides accurate and detailed data necessary for precise highway alignment planning.

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17. What is the primary factor influencing the location of bridges in highway engineering?

1. Traffic volume
2. Geographical features
3. Soil type
4. Population density

Explanation:

The location of bridges is mainly determined by natural features such as rivers, valleys, and terrain.

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18. Which of the following is NOT a consideration for the location of bridges in highway engineering?

1. Environmental impact
2. Proximity to urban areas
3. Cost-effectiveness
4. Construction material availability

Explanation:

Material availability is important for construction, it is not typically a primary factor in determining bridge location.

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19. Which of the following is a common problem in rural areas related to highway engineering?

1. Lack of pedestrian facilities
3. Pollution from vehicle emissions
4. Traffic congestion

Answer: A) Lack of pedestrian facilities

Explanation:

Pedestrian safety is an issue in rural locations since sidewalks and designated pedestrian routes are often absent.

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20. What is a typical challenge in urban areas concerning highway engineering?

1. Insufficient drainage systems
2. Wide availability of land for road expansion
3. Minimal vehicular traffic
4. Sparse population density

Explanation:

Urban areas face issues with managing stormwater runoff due to high impervious surface coverage, leading to flooding and infrastructure damage.

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21. Which of the following is NOT typically included in highway drawings and reports during project preparation?

1. Pavement design
2. Drainage design
3. Traffic signal timings

Explanation:

Highway drawings and reports primarily focus on physical aspects such as road alignment, drainage design, and pavement design, while traffic signal timings are usually part of traffic engineering studies rather than highway project preparation.

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22. Which aspect of highway project preparation involves optimizing the connection between individual road segments?

1. Traffic signal timings
2. Environmental impact assessment
3. Interchange design

Explanation:

Interchange design focuses on optimizing connections between individual road segments, such as highways, to facilitate smooth traffic flow.

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23. Which of the following physical features is crucial for highway alignment?

1. Soil type
2. Elevation of nearby mountains
3. Average annual rainfall
4. Presence of rivers or streams

Answer: D) Presence of rivers or streams

Explanation:

Rivers or streams impact highway alignment by necessitating bridge structures or altering road grading to accommodate water flow.

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24. In highway engineering, what term refers to the natural slope of the land surface?

1. Superelevation
2. Crossfall
4. Camber

Explanation:

Gradient refers to the slope of the land surface and is a crucial factor in highway design for ensuring safe and efficient drainage.

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25. Which physical feature is particularly challenging for highway construction due to its erosive potential?

1. Alluvial plains
2. Plateaus
3. Karst topography
4. Glacial valleys

Explanation:

Karst terrain, which is typified by eroding and dissolving limestone deposits, presents difficulties for the development of stable highways and calls for specialist technical solutions.

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26. In highway engineering, what term refers to the artificial slope provided on the outer edge of a road to counteract centrifugal force during vehicle turns?

1. Camber
3. Crossfall
4. Superelevation

Explanation:

Superelevation, also referred to as banking or can't, is a slope added to bends to lessen lateral acceleration and promote safe vehicle navigation.

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27. Which of the following factors does NOT affect the formation width of a highway?

1. Terrain characteristics
3. Soil type
4. Traffic speed limits

Explanation:

While traffic speed limits impact highway design, they do not directly affect the required formation width.

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28. In highway construction, what is the primary purpose of widening the formation width in cut sections?

1. To accommodate utility lines
2. To prevent soil erosion
3. To enhance stability
4. To provide adequate sight distance

Explanation:

Widening the formation width in cut sections improves the stability of the highway by minimizing the risk of slope failure.

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29. What is the primary purpose of providing adequate formation width for highway drainage?

1. To minimize maintenance costs
2. To prevent flooding
3. To reduce environmental impact
4. To improve pavement durability

Explanation:

Adequate formation width allows for proper drainage design, which is crucial for preventing water accumulation and subsequent flooding on the highway.

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30. Which of the following factors does NOT influence horizontal alignment design in highway engineering?

1. Terrain
2. Climate
3. Soil composition
4. Traffic volume

Explanation:

Soil composition primarily affects the foundation design rather than horizontal alignment.

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31. What is the relationship between design speed and curve radius?

1. As design speed increases, curve radius decreases
2. As design speed decreases, curve radius decreases
3. Curve radius remains constant regardless of design speed
4. There is no relationship between design speed and curve radius

Explanation:

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32. What is the term used to describe the transition zone between normal cross slope and full super-elevation on a highway curve?

1. Spiral curve
2. Critical section
3. Superelevated section
4. Transition curve

Explanation:

The transition curve gradually introduces super-elevation, minimizing abrupt changes in cross slope for smoother vehicle transition.

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33. What is the primary purpose of adding lime to soil in highway construction?

1. Increase shear strength
2. Enhance plasticity
3. Reduce shrinkage
4. Improve drainage

Explanation:

Adding lime to soil helps increase its shear strength, thereby enhancing stability and load-bearing capacity, particularly in subgrade and base course construction.

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34. Which property of aggregate is crucial for determining the resistance of asphalt mixes to rutting?

1. Aggregate hardness
2. Aggregate shape
3. Aggregate size

Explanation:

Aggregate shape plays a significant role in resisting rutting in asphalt mixes. Angular and rough-textured aggregates provide interlocking characteristics, reducing rut formation under traffic loads.

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35. What property of aggregates is primarily responsible for determining the workability of concrete?

1. Aggregate size
2. Aggregate shape
3. Aggregate texture
4. Aggregate density

Explanation:

Concrete's workability is greatly impacted by aggregate size. In addition to ensuring appropriate particle packing, properly graded aggregates help concrete flow during placing.

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36. Which material is commonly used as a filler in highway construction to improve the stability of the pavement layers?

1. Concrete
2. Bentonite
3. Aggregate
4. Asphalt

Explanation:

In highway construction, fillers like crushed stone, gravel, and sand are commonly utilized to give support, stability, and drainage capabilities.

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37. What is the primary purpose of using fillers in highway engineering?

1. Increase pavement flexibility
2. Reduce pavement thickness
3. Improve pavement aesthetics
4. Enhance pavement strength

Explanation:

The overall performance and longevity of the road are improved by fillers, which are employed in highway engineering to strengthen and stabilize pavement layers.

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38. Which property of bitumen makes it suitable for waterproofing applications?

1. High viscosity
2. Low ductility
3. Impermeability
4. High penetration

Explanation:

Bitumen is perfect for waterproofing applications like pavement sealants and roofing because of its water-impermeable nature.

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39. Bitumen is commonly used as a binder in which type of pavement construction?

1. Flexible pavement
2. Composite pavement
3. Rigid pavement
4. Gravel pavement

Explanation:

In the building of flexible pavements, bitumen is a good binder due to its adhesive qualities and flexibility, which assist in resisting deformation and distributing loads.

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40. Which characteristic of highway construction materials determines their ability to maintain their shape and structural integrity under load?

1. Density
2. Flexibility
3. Stability
4. Cohesion

Explanation:

Stability is essential for highway construction materials to prevent deformation or failure under the applied loads, ensuring the safety and longevity of the road infrastructure.

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41. What property of highway construction materials describes their ability to resist deformation under repeated loading, such as vehicle traffic?

1. Plasticity
2. Elasticity
3. Fatigue resistance
4. Strength

Explanation:

Fatigue resistance is crucial in highway construction materials to withstand the repetitive stress and strains induced by traffic loads over time, preventing premature failure.

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42. Which type of emulsion is commonly used for chip sealing applications?

1. Rapid-setting emulsion
2. Medium-setting emulsion
3. Slow-setting emulsion
4. Polymer-modified emulsion

Explanation:

Slow-setting emulsions may penetrate and stick to the aggregate surface well, they are recommended for chip-sealing applications.

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43. What type of road construction method is typically used for highways in areas with high traffic volume?

1. Flexible pavement
2. Rigid pavement
3. Composite pavement

Explanation:

In addition to being strong enough to handle high traffic volumes, flexible pavements can adapt to variations in temperature and subgrade conditions.

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44. What is the primary purpose of a subgrade in road construction?

1. Provide smoothness to the road surface
2. Support the pavement structure
3. Improve the aesthetics of the road
4. None of these

Answer: B) Support the pavement structure

Explanation:

The natural soil or prepared surface known as the subgrade serves as the foundation for the road pavement and gives the structure of the road strength and stability.

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45. Which of the following is a key component of a flexible pavement structure?

1. Subbase
2. Expansion joints
3. Reinforcing steel
4. Curb and gutter

Explanation:

The subbase layer provides additional support and drainage for the pavement structure above it, contributing to the overall performance of flexible pavements.

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46. What is the purpose of providing dowel bars in transverse joints of cement concrete pavements?

2. To maintain alignment and smoothness
3. To control cracking due to shrinkage

Explanation:

Dowel bars are used to transfer loads between adjacent concrete slabs, preventing differential vertical movement and maintaining pavement integrity.

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47. Which type of joint is used to divide large concrete pavement areas into smaller panels to control cracking?

1. Construction joint
2. Contraction joint
3. Isolation joint
4. Expansion joint

Explanation:

Isolation joints are placed to separate different concrete sections and prevent cracking caused by shrinkage and differential movement.

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48. Which joint type is typically used at intersections and bridge approaches in cement concrete pavements?

1. Longitudinal joint
2. Expansion joint
3. Tie bar joint
4. Contraction joint

Explanation:

Expansion joints are frequently utilized to handle thermal expansion and contraction at junctions and on bridge approaches.

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49. Which joint type is formed by cutting through the concrete surface after it has hardened?

1. Contraction joint
2. Construction joint
3. Saw-cut joint
4. Tie bar joint

Explanation:

Saw-cut joints are created by cutting through the hardened concrete surface to control cracking and induce planned cracking locations.

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50. What is the primary purpose of street lighting in highway engineering?

1. Enhancing aesthetic appeal
2. Reducing traffic congestion
3. Providing safety and visibility
4. Minimizing environmental impact

Answer: C) Providing safety and visibility

Explanation:

The main goals of street lighting in highway engineering are to increase pedestrian and vehicle safety and visibility, particularly at night.

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51. What is the purpose of incorporating green spaces and trees in roadside development?

1. Enhancing air quality
2. Increasing noise pollution
3. Improving traffic flow
4. None of the above

Explanation:

By absorbing pollutants and releasing oxygen via photosynthesis, roadside development green areas and trees improve the quality of the air.

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52. Which lighting design approach seeks to reduce glare from vehicles to that of pedestrians?

1. Luminance uniformity
2. Vertical illuminance
3. Shielding angle
4. Glare index

Explanation:

Shielding angle refers to the angle below which a light source is not visible, helping to reduce glare and improve visual comfort.

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53. What is the primary purpose of highway drainage in civil engineering?

2. Preventing erosion of roadside vegetation
3. Managing surface water to prevent damage to road infrastructure
4. Facilitating wildlife habitat development

Explanation:

Highway drainage systems are made to efficiently control surface water runoff to shield road infrastructure from water accumulation-related harm.

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54. What is the significance of maintaining proper slope gradients in highway drainage design?

1. It reduces the effectiveness of drainage systems
2. It increases traffic flow speed
3. It prevents water stagnation and promotes efficient runoff
4. It encourages water accumulation on the pavement surface

Answer: C) It prevents water stagnation and promotes efficient runoff

Explanation:

Proper slope gradients ensure that water drains efficiently from the roadway, preventing water stagnation and potential damage to the infrastructure.

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55. In which phase of highway construction is drainage design typically addressed?

1. Preliminary design
2. Construction phase
3. Post-construction evaluation
4. Maintenance phase

Explanation:

To guarantee that drainage systems are properly integrated with the general layout and alignment of the route, highway drainage design is usually addressed during the preliminary design phase.

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56. What is the primary cause of edge cracking in pavements?

1. Poor drainage
3. Thermal expansion and contraction

Explanation:

Edge cracking in pavements is primarily caused by the concentration of traffic loading near pavement edges, leading to localized stress and cracking.

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57. Which of the following methods is NOT commonly used for strengthening existing pavements?

1. Overlaying
2. Full-depth reclamation
3. Milling and resurfacing
4. Widening the pavement

Explanation:

While widening the pavement may be a solution for addressing increased traffic volumes, it is not typically considered a method for strengthening existing pavements.

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58. Which factor is NOT considered when selecting materials for pavement strengthening?

2. Climate and environmental conditions
3. Existing pavement condition
4. Availability of construction equipment

Answer: D) Availability of construction equipment

Explanation:

While the availability of construction equipment is important for project planning, it is not a primary factor in material selection for pavement strengthening.

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59. Which layer of the pavement structure is typically targeted for strengthening through overlaying?

1. Subbase
2. Base course
3. Surface course

Explanation:

Overlaying adds a new layer to the surface course of the existing pavement, improving its structural integrity and ride quality.

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60. Which of the following is NOT a function of surface drainage arrangements in highway engineering?

1. Minimizing erosion of embankments
2. Preventing water accumulation on the road surface
3. Reducing the risk of hydroplaning
4. Facilitating groundwater recharge

Explanation:

Surface drainage focuses on removing excess water from the road surface to enhance safety and structural integrity.

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61. Which type of drainage system is designed to intercept and divert water beneath the roadbed?

1. Surface ditches
2. French drains
3. Cross-drains
4. Culverts

Explanation:

French drains are installed below the roadbed to manage subsurface water and prevent saturation-induced damage.

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62. In highway engineering, what is the term used to describe the slope of the road surface that directs water toward the edges?

1. Superelevation
3. Cross slope
4. Camber

Explanation:

Camber refers to the curvature or slope of the road surface, aiding in water runoff towards the edges.

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63. What is the primary source of financing for road projects in most countries?

1. Government budget allocations
2. Private investors
3. Foreign aid
4. Donations

Explanation:

Government budgets typically allocate funds for infrastructure projects like roads, making it a primary financing source.

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64. Which financing approach involves multiple investors pooling funds to finance road projects and sharing the risks and returns?

1. Venture capital financing
2. Syndicated loans
3. Sovereign wealth funds
4. Crowdfunding

Explanation:

Syndicated loans involve multiple lenders jointly providing funds for a project, commonly used for large infrastructure ventures like road construction.

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65. Which financing strategy relies on levying taxes specifically earmarked for road construction and maintenance?

1. User charges
2. Impact fees
3. Fuel taxes
4. Land value capture

Explanation:

Road infrastructure is often funded by fuel taxes, which are levied on the sale of gasoline and yield money.

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66. Which financing method involves the government providing financial incentives to encourage private investment in road projects?

1. Tax increment financing
2. Value capture financing
3. Tax-exempt bonds
4. Subsidies

Explanation:

The government offers subsidies, or financial support, to lower the cost of private investment in road projects and promote private sector involvement.

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67. Which financing mechanism involves charging users directly for road usage, typically based on distance travelled or vehicle weight?

1. Toll financing
2. Congestion pricing
3. Property tax

Explanation:

Toll financing involves users paying fees directly for using roads, providing revenue to finance construction and maintenance costs.

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68. Which factor is NOT typically considered during the evaluation of PPP projects in highway engineering?

1. Economic viability
2. Environmental impact
3. Social benefits
4. Government bureaucracy

Explanation:

Government bureaucracy is not typically considered during the evaluation of PPP projects. Instead, factors such as economic viability, environmental impact, and social benefits are given significant consideration.

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69. Which phase of the PPP model involves the operation and maintenance of the completed highway infrastructure?

1. Design phase
2. Planning phase
3. Construction phase
4. Operations phase

Explanation:

The operations phase of the PPP model involves the ongoing operation and maintenance of the completed highway infrastructure by the responsible parties.

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70. Which stage of road development is typically conducted to assess potential safety issues before construction?

1. Pre-construction
2. Post-construction
3. Retrofitting
4. Routine maintenance

Explanation:

To detect safety risks and include relevant solutions in the road design, road safety audits are frequently carried out during the pre-construction phase.

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71. Which factor is NOT typically considered during a road safety audit?

2. Weather conditions
3. Traffic volume
4. Construction material cost

Explanation:

Road safety audits primarily focus on factors directly related to road safety, such as geometry, traffic volume, and weather condition.

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72. Which economic evaluation method focuses on the time taken for the project's cumulative benefits to equal its cumulative costs?

1. Benefit-Cost Ratio
2. Net Present Value
3. Internal Rate of Return
4. Payback Period

Explanation:

The payback Period assesses the time required for a highway project to recover its initial investment through accumulated benefits.

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73. Which of the following factors does NOT typically influence road user characteristics?

1. Age and gender distribution
2. Vehicle speed limits
4. Traffic volume

Explanation:

Road user characteristics encompass factors like demographics, behavior, and traffic flow patterns, while speed limits are regulatory measures set by authorities.

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74. What aspect of road user characteristics is primarily affected by age and experience?

1. Vehicle types used
2. Reaction times
3. Parking preferences
4. Lane discipline

Explanation:

Age and experience influence the reaction times of road users, impacting their ability to respond to changes in traffic conditions.

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75. Which of the following factors significantly influences the design of highway curves?

1. Vehicle weight
2. Ambient temperature

Explanation:

The weight of vehicles affects their ability to negotiate curves safely, influencing the design criteria for curve radii and super-elevation.

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76. What vehicular characteristic directly impacts the design of bridge clearances on highways?

1. Vehicle height
2. Engine Horsepower
3. Passenger capacity
4. Tire pressure

Explanation:

Bridge clearances are designed to accommodate vehicles of varying heights, ensuring safe passage without collisions.

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77. Which of the following factors primarily determines the traffic flow rate on a highway?

1. Vehicle speed limit
3. Lane width
4. Traffic volume

Explanation:

A particular point's traffic flow rate is calculated as the number of cars passing there in a predetermined amount of time.

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78. What type of diagram is used to depict the sequence of events leading to a collision in an accident?

1. Pie chart
2. Collision diagram
3. Scatter plot
4. Bar graph

Explanation:

Collision diagrams visually represent the sequence and locations of vehicles involved in accidents, aiding in understanding collision dynamics.

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79. Which type of accident study involves gathering data from accident reports and police records?

1. Laboratory studies
2. Field studies
3. Observational studies
4. Retrospective studies

Explanation:

Retrospective studies involve analyzing past accidents by reviewing reports and records to identify patterns and causes.

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80. Which of the following is NOT a type of intersection commonly encountered in highway engineering?

1. T-intersection
3. Diamond interchange
4. Linear intersection

Explanation:

Linear intersection is not a recognized type of intersection. Common types include T-intersections, roundabouts, and diamond interchanges.

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81. In a diamond interchange, which feature allows vehicles to transition between the freeway and the intersecting road?

1. Exit ramp
2. Traffic signal
4. U-turn bay

Explanation:

In a diamond intersection, exit ramps make it easier for cars to go from the highway to the intersecting road.

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82. In a T-intersection, which road does the terminating road intersect with?

Explanation:

A T-intersection is when a major route and the terminating road meet at a T-shaped intersection.

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