# Hydraulic Machines Turbines MCQs - Fluid Mechanics

Hydraulic Machines Turbines MCQs - Fluid Mechanics: This section contains the multiple-choice questions and answers on the fluid mechanics chapter Dimensional and Model Analysis. practice these MCQs to learn and enhance the knowledge of Dimensional and Model Analysis.

## List of Fluid Mechanics - Hydraulic Machines Turbines MCQs

1. What is the primary function of a hydraulic turbine?

1. Generate Electricity
2. Increase fluid pressure
3. Convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy
4. Pump water

Answer: C) Convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy

Explanation:

Hydraulic turbines are devices designed to convert the potential energy of water into mechanical energy, typically used for generating electricity.

2. In a hydroelectric power plant, what is the primary function of the dam?

1. Regulate turbine speed
2. Store water
3. Control river flow
4. Generate Electricity

Explanation:

The dam is used to store water and create a reservoir, providing a constant source of water for power generation.

3. What is the purpose of the penstock in a hydroelectric power plant?

1. Control river flow
2. Store water
3. Generate Electricity
4. Convey water to the turbines

Answer: D) Convey water to the turbines

Explanation:

The penstock is a pipeline that conveys water from the reservoir to the turbines, where it is used to generate electricity.

4. Which component in a hydroelectric power plant is responsible for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy?

1. Transformer
2. Turbine
3. Penstock
4. Governor

Explanation:

Turbines convert the mechanical energy of flowing water into rotational mechanical energy, which is then used to generate electricity.

5. Which of the following factors does head NOT depend on?

1. The type of turbine
2. The height of the water source
3. The atmospheric pressure
4. The density of the fluid

Answer: A) The type of turbine

Explanation:

The head is primarily determined by the height of the water source, fluid density, and atmospheric pressure, irrespective of the turbine type.

6. The overall efficiency of a hydraulic turbine can be calculated by:

1. Adding hydraulic efficiency, mechanical efficiency, and volumetric efficiency
2. Dividing mechanical efficiency by hydraulic efficiency
3. Multiplying hydraulic efficiency, mechanical efficiency, and volumetric efficiency
4. Considering all losses in the system, including hydraulic, mechanical, and other losses

Answer: D) Considering all losses in the system, including hydraulic, mechanical, and other losses

Explanation:

Overall efficiency accounts for all losses in the turbine system, including hydraulic, mechanical, and other losses.

7. Mechanical efficiency is the ratio of:

1. Mechanical power output to hydraulic power input
2. Hydraulic power input to mechanical power output

Answer: A) Mechanical power output to hydraulic power input

Explanation:

Mechanical efficiency is defined as the ratio of mechanical power output to hydraulic power input.

8. What does a high hydraulic efficiency value indicate in a hydraulic turbine?

1. The turbine is converting most of the hydraulic energy into mechanical energy
2. The turbine is losing a significant amount of hydraulic energy
3. The turbine is not suitable for high heads
4. The turbine is running at low speeds

Answer: A) The turbine is converting most of the hydraulic energy into mechanical energy.

Explanation:

High hydraulic efficiency indicates efficient conversion of hydraulic energy to mechanical energy.

9. If the gross head available to a hydraulic turbine is 100 meters and the velocity head is 10 meters, what is the net head?

1. 100 meters
2. 90 meters
3. 10 meters
4. 110 meters

Explanation:

The net head is the difference between the gross head and velocity head, so in this case, it's 100 meters - 10 meters = 90 meters.

10. Net Head is defined as:

2. The head at the outlet of the turbine
3. The total head losses in the turbine
4. The head due to the kinetic energy of water

Explanation:

The net head is the difference between the gross head and the head due to the velocity of water.

11. Which type of hydraulic turbine is best suited for high-head applications?

1. Kaplan turbine
2. Pelton turbine
3. Crossflow turbine
4. Francis turbine

Explanation:

Pelton turbines are designed for high-head applications, typically above 300 meters.

12. In which category of hydraulic turbines do Pelton turbines belong?

1. Impulse turbines
2. Reaction turbines
4. Axial flow turbines

Explanation:

Pelton turbines are categorized as impulse turbines.

13. The classification of hydraulic turbines is primarily based on:

1. Flow rate
4. Runner shape

Explanation:

The primary classification of hydraulic turbines is based on the head or the difference in water levels.

14. The classification of hydraulic turbines is primarily based on:

1. Flow rate
4. Runner shape

Explanation:

The primary classification of hydraulic turbines is based on the head or the difference in water levels.

15. Where are mixed-flow turbines commonly used?

3. Low-flow rate applications
4. High-flow rate applications

Explanation:

Mixed flow turbines are suitable for low-head applications where both axial and radial flow components are required for efficiency.

16. What is the distinguishing feature of a radial flow hydraulic turbine?

1. The flow is parallel to the shaft
2. The flow is perpendicular to the shaft
3. It has adjustable guide vanes
4. It is suitable for high-head applications

Answer: B) The flow is perpendicular to the shaft

Explanation:

Radial flow turbines have a flow path that is perpendicular to the turbine shaft.

17. What is the primary goal of optimizing draft tube design?

1. To increase the weight of the turbine
2. To minimize energy losses
3. To increase the rotational speed of the turbine
4. To reduce the water flow rate

Answer: B) To minimize energy losses

Explanation:

Draft tube design optimization aims to reduce energy losses during the flow of water, thus improving overall turbine efficiency.